Dialogues with Developing Countries on National
Strategies for Sustainable Development
on Status review in Ghana
DRAFT WORKING DOCUMENT
Development Planning Commission, Accra, Ghana
Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK
( Lead Consultant)
O. Box CT 1481
to the Study
to the review process
21 (UNCED, 1992) called for the preparation of national strategies for
sustainable development (nssds). The OECD DAC in its Shaping
the 21st Century document (1996), set a target of 2005 for nssds
to be in the process of implementation. In 1997, the UN General Assembly
Special Session set a target date of 2002 for all countries to have introduced
such strategies. Shaping the 21st Century commits DAC members to support
developing countries in the formulation and implementation of nssds through
a partnership approach.
these international targets, there is a lack of clarity on what an nssds
actually is (there is no internally agreed definition, nor any official
guidance on how to prepare an nssd). The donor community has done little
work to understand the issue or to determine how best to assist developing
countries with nssds. In the past, many strategic planning initiatives
have had limited practical impact because they have focused on the production
of a document as an end-product, and such documents have often been left
without implementation. Instead, the focus of an nssd should be on improving
the integration of social and environmental objectives into key economic
clarification note was endorsed by the DAC High Level Meeting in May 1999
which defined an nssd as a strategic and participatory process
of analysis, debate, capacity strengthening, planning and action towards
sustainable development. However, an nssd should not be a completely
new planning process to be conducted from the beginning. Rather, it is
recognised that in an individual country there will be a range of initiatives
that may have been taken in response to commitments entered into at the
Rio Earth Summit (UNCED) or as part of commitments to international treaties
and conventions and that these may be regarded in that country, individually
or collectively, as the nssd. But the challenge is: to gain clarification
on what initiative(s) make up the nssd; and then to identify what improvements
need to be made to these initiatives or developed between them
such as umbrella frameworks, systems for participation and national sustainable
development for a so that they meet the (above) definition of an
DAC Working Party on Development Cooperation and the Environment (WP/ENV)
has mandated a Task Force, co-led by the European Commission (EC) and
the UKs Department for International Development (DFID), to produce
guidance on best practice for assisting developing countries with the
formulation and implementation of nssd processes. A scoping workshop in
November 1998 brought together Task Force and developing country representatives
to discuss the broad directions for this work. The workshop recommended
a systematic in-country consultation with developing country partners
in order to elaborate good practice for donors.
February 1999 meeting of the DAC WP/ENV endorsed the recommendation to
initiate a project to undertake informal consultations, or dialogues,
in a number of developing countries and regions, involving donors and
a range of stakeholders. The dialogues will review experience with nssds
and examine how donors can best assist developing countries in such processes.
As well as contributing to the production of generic guidance for donors,
the country/regional dialogues aim to make a concrete contribution to
nssd processes and donor coordination in the participating countries.
support of the DAC Task Forces work on nssds, this project will
involve full dialogues in five developing countries (Bolivia, Burkina
Faso, Tanzania, Nepal and Thailand). It will also seek to draw lessons
from existing processes to audit or learn from nssd experience (Ghana,
Namibia and Pakistan).
process will lead to the preparation of DAC policy guidance on nssds and
a detailed sourcebook with country case materials.
Task Force has contracted the International Institute for Environment
and Development (IIED) to coordinate and administer the project to implement
these dialogues and review activities, and to prepare policy guidance
and a sourcebook for publication by the OECD. In Ghana, the review process
is being facilitated as a partnership between IIED and the National Development
Planning Commission (NDPC).
of the review
broad objective of the study is to gain an understanding of the process
in Ghana to help identify successful and unsuccessful elements of the
process of developing and implementing NSSD in Ghana. In addition to
contributing to the identification of international best practices in
NSSD design and implementation, this should provide a useful input into
the on-going process of developing the Second Step Policy Framework (2001-2005)
for Ghanas Vision 2020.
aims of the status review of the process of developing and implementing
NSSDs in Ghana constitute the tasks to be undertaken for the review.
These assignments are to:
the historical, political and economic context of major strategic
the current status of past and present strategy work
key stakeholders and their participation and responsibilities in strategic
planning and implementation
key institutions and policy processes responsibilities, relationships
the extent and effect of political commitment and shared vision regarding
the strategy processes
lessons learned from strategy work in Ghana.
focus of the study is on the processes of designing and implementing various
strategies for sustainable development in Ghana. The study does not involve
a review of the content of individual strategies or plans. Thus, the
emphasis will be on determining the extent to which effective mechanisms
for strategy development and for facilitating stakeholder participation
were utilized in designing and implementing individual development strategies.
Main issues for review
issues for analysis during the review cover the main analytical themes
in the categories listed in the May 2000 IIED Guide to Key Issues in National
Strategies for Sustainable Development and Methods for Analysing Strategy
Processes: A Prompt for status reviews and dialogues (The Guide). These
categories are: context, actors, integrating institutions and initiatives,
processes and impacts. Details of the issues under each category are
presented in the Guide but those selected for review in the study were
those determined to be relevant to the Ghanaian situation. In addition,
due to time constraints, only important issues judged to be pertinent
to the analysis were included in the review.
Steps in undertaking the assignment
terms of the broad approach to the study, the study was conducted in three
phases. The first involved the review of key issues in implementing NSSD
in Ghana. A stakeholders workshop was organized during the second
phase to discuss and review findings, conclusions and recommendations
from the first phase. The third phase involves finalizing the report
of the study including integrating suggestions from the stakeholders workshop.
study is being conducted in five phases. The Team:
key issues in implementing NSSD in Ghana
a stakeholder workshop to review preliminary findings, with participation
from the national planning commission, ministries and departments, academics,
national council on women and development, the parliament, donors, development
projects and IIED
the Country Progress Report for the Thailand Mid-Term Review Workshop,
including integrating suggestions from the stakeholder workshop
a draft Country Report incorporating comments from the Thailand Workshop
discuss the draft Report, and comments from the Mid-Term Review workshop
at a second focus-group seminar to involve mainly beneficiaries.
would finalize and publish the Country Report, including integrating
comments from all sources and activities.
full list and institutional affiliation of the participants in the first
stakeholder review workshop is presented in Annex A.
context of country-level frameworks
is instructive to place the development frameworks discussed in this review
in the context within which they were developed and are being implemented.
has had a very long history and tradition of planning for national development:
Ghana was reputed to have completed the first development plan in the
world, the Guggisberg Plan, in 1919. This was more of a public investment
programme than a comprehensive development plan but it provided the framework
for the first efforts to develop the Gold Coast up to 1926. This very
first plan was developed by the colonial administration without any participation
by the people and was implemented largely by the administrative service.
that period, very little real development took place until the independence
movement provided the impetus for further development of the country.
Beginning from the immediate pre-independence era, the economic and social
development of Ghana has been guided by several planning processes. These
First Ten Year Development Plan (which was condensed into a Five-year
Consolidation Development Plan 1957-1959
Second Development Plan 1959-1964
Seven-Year Development Plan 1963/64-1969/70
Two-Year Development Plan 1968-69-1969/70
One-Year Development Plan July 1970-June 1971
Five Year Development Plan 1975/76-1979/80
Economic Recovery Program 1984-1986
National Development Policy Framework: Long-Term Development Objectives
At the national level, the major planning processes that
have impacted most on national development to date are:
The 7-Year Development Plan (1963/64-1969/70)
The Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) (1983-1987)
Ghana -Vision 2020 (1996)
the development efforts and direction of Ghana are being implemented within
the framework of the Ghana-Vision 2020. Major development programming
approaches to achieving the goals of the Ghana Vision-2020 at the national
level have involved the following initiated in the years shown in parenthesis:
The National Economic Forum (1997)
Public sector reforms under CSPIP, PURFMAP,
MTEF, and NIRP (1994)
World Bank sponsored Comprehensive Development
Framework (CDF, 1999)
United Nations Development Assistance Framework
Japanese promoted Integrated Human Development
cross-cutting strategic approaches developed to ensure sustainability
of the national strategy for development cover:
Poverty Reduction (1995)
Natural Resource Management (1995)
strategic development frameworks in Ghana are national. However, regions
and districts prepare their development strategies and plans under the
decentralized planning system within planning guidelines derived from
the Vision-2020 overall policy and strategic framework. The closest to
sub-national strategies were the integrated regional planning frameworks
of the 1970s and 1980s. However, those approaches were not strategic,
were only partially integrated while their preparation did not follow
the commonly-accepted norms for designing strategies for sustainable development.
2.1.2 Political context
country had been under a quasi-military regime (PNDC) since 1982 that
oversaw the implementation of the ERP, which involved large doses of economic
liberalization. However, the political atmosphere was still not liberalized
until 1992 when there was a transition to multi-party democratic governance.
In practice, the main opposition party boycotted Parliament during the
first period of civilian government (1992-1996). The participation of
all parties in the second period (1996-2000) saw the intensification of
true multi-party democracy that has been consolidated by the recent change
of government. Overall, the last decade has witnessed the emergence of
democratic institutions, such as a free and liberalized press and organs
for addressing serious frauds, and, lapses in human rights and administrative
justice, all of which are necessary for the institutionalization of good
governance. Thus, political liberalization finally caught up with economic
liberalization a decade later.
began the spiral of long-term economic decline in the 1960s due to low
investment, low and falling efficiency of resource use and declining exports.
Between 1960 and 1982 real per capita income fell at an average annual
rate of nearly 2 percent while annual inflation rose from 6.2 percent
to 123 percent. In response, the ERP was initiated to reverse the countrys
downward trend and start a process of sustained growth. Since 1982, the
focus has been on economic liberalization and stabilization, social development,
long-term growth, poverty reduction, gender balance and regional integration.
response, real GDP growth averaged 4 percent annually while inflation
dropped to 20 percent during 1992-94.
the performance of the economy slipped from 1992 when large fiscal imbalances
resulted in heightened inflation and currency depreciation. Within this
context, there was the need to consolidate economic gains, including improving
the coordination of economic management, and to begin to address poverty
issues in a systematic manner.
development of Ghana Vision-2020 was in reaction to the need to ensure
long-term growth to avoid the drastic drop in living conditions by addressing
poverty in an integrated manner and improving the management of the economy
to place the nation on a path of sustainable growth.
the economy is characterized by: (a) market-determined and private sector
oriented policy framework, but private sector response to the economic
framework and incentives has been low, (b) state divesting controlled
enterprises and restructuring of public sector administration, (c) largely
agrarian setup with low manufacturing value-addition, (d) low savings
and investment (e) dependence on two commodities, (f) high debt, both
external and domestic.
Development trends and key factors
design of strategic frameworks for national development has been influenced
by key trends and factors. These include:
the pain and memory of past economic downturn
the resultant economic liberalization and
market-based stance of economic policy which has yielded a fragile stabilization
as the economy is still prone to destabilization by external economic
the transition to multi-party democratic
relative peace and stability
increasing population, unemployment, demand
on social services and fall in living standards
poor natural resource management resulting
in loss of forest cover and general environmental degradation
administrative context for the development of national development strategy
frameworks in the post-ERP era involved the establishment of: (a) organs
for economic management, including the Economic Management Team, (b) an
emerging consultative approach (culminating in the National Economic Forum),
(c) a development planning system including a legal framework and a planning
institution (the NDPC), (d) a decentralized planning system
this economic management and development planning environment, major donors
felt the need to design their own frameworks for development assistance
planning, partly in response to ineffective donor coordination and integration
of donor development programmes. This situation partly accounted for
the development of the CDF and CCA.
development of the current Second Medium-Term Policy framework and plan
has taken due cognizance of regional factors. Thus, the framework emphasizes
economic growth and poverty reduction, popular participation in economic
and political decision-making, and, good governance to consolidate the
relative peace and stability that Ghana enjoys in relation to other strife-torn
areas of the sub-region. The framework also explicitly seeks to enhance
the economic integration of the sub-region.
context: effectiveness of regulations and incentives
effectiveness of regulations and incentives determines the nature and
effect of 0the institutional context for the development of strategic
initiatives. Broadly, in consonance with the progressive consolidation
of economic and political liberalization, the approach to internalizing
economic and environmental costs, to facilitate best-practice investments,
is by fiscal and regulatory frameworks, rather than bureaucratic control
mechanisms. For example, (a) the EPA has adopted the polluter-pays principle
to internalize environmental costs, (b) investment allowances and incentives
by the Ghana Investment Promotion Centre (GIPC) help correct some market
failures in the investment environment, and, (c) the Public Utilities
Regulatory Commission (PURC) attempts to level the playing field regarding
utility costs. However, the effectiveness of regulations and incentives
is hampered by imperfections in the availability and access to information
and data on economic and social parameters of national development. This
affects the efficacy of development planning strategy formulation.
awareness of sustainable development has been heightened, especially by
the integration of environmental and social issues (such as HIV/AIDS and
family planning) in development through enhanced activities of civil society
groups, particularly NGOs. The institutionalization of parliamentary
and multi-party democracy, decentralized administration, and, increased
public awareness campaigns by such constitutionally-mandated bodies as
the National Commission on Civic Education (NCCE) and the Commission on
Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ), is facilitating the development
of a consumer or civil-society driven society and incentives away from
command and control to market-based mechanisms.
strategies for sustainable development in Ghana
the large number of strategy processes and programming approaches to implementing
Vision 2020 in effect and the time constraints of the study, the review
would only briefly describe some of the key historical and current strategic
3.1 Key historical
7-Year Development Plan
7-Year Development Plan was initiated in 1964 as first integrated and
comprehensive economic plan in Ghanas development administration
history. The main objectives were to accelerate economic growth, start
a socialist transformation of the economy and remove all vestiges of colonial
structure of the economy. It was prepared by the Planning Commission
with input from committees of civil service, academia and business. Key
stakeholders were the Conventions Peoples Party (CPP) and government,
the state sector of the economy, cooperatives, civil service, the intelligentsia,
private business sector. Implementation of the plan was cut short by
the military intervention of 1966.
3.1.2 The Economic Recovery Programme
next most significant historical programmatic effort in national development
was the two-phased Economic Recovery Program involving stabilization and
rehabilitation, and liberalization and growth that was initiated in 1983
with the support of the World Bank and the IMF. The major objectives
were to arrest the severe economic decline of the 1970s and improve the
social and overall well being of Ghanaians, particularly the under-privileged,
deprived and vulnerable. The programme was prepared solely by government
teams and collaborating officials of the World Bank and the IMF, with
very little or no involvement of civil society groups. The ERP provided
the impetus for a long-term growth approach to development that laid the
basis for the development of the National Development Planning Framework
that was the pre-cursor to the Ghana Vision 2020.
historical strategic processes are more fully described in Annex C.
Year initiated: The underlying long-term development policy framework
preparation was initiated in 1991 and completed in 1994 but the Ghana
Vision-2020 nomenclature was adopted in 1996.
Brief description: A national development policy framework covering
long-term (25 years) development objectives covering five basic thematic
areas of macroeocnomics, human development, rural development, urban development
and enabling environment. The achievement of these long-term objectives
is expected to transform Ghana into a nation whose material well being
and standard of living would conform to those of middle-income countries
as at 1993/94. The Ghana Vision-2020 provides a framework to guide sectoral
agencies and the District Assemblies prepare policies and programmes for
economic and social development that would enable Ghana achieve her long-term
goals. The long-term objectives are to be achieved by implementing policies
through five-year medium-term rolling plans.
Key Objective: Ghana is to achieve a balanced economy and a middle-income
country status and living standard by the year 2020.
Status of preparation and implementation: Preparation of the Vision
has been completed. The First Medium Term Development Plan 1996-2000
has been implemented. The Second Medium Term Development Plan 2001-2005
is currently under preparation.
Key stakeholders: The preparation of the Vision was dominated
by central government agencies, especially the National Development Planning
Commission and ministries, departments and agencies. However, the preparation
of the medium term development plans has involved a very wide array of
stakeholders, including District Assemblies, the private sector, NGOs,
academics, workers, and traditional authorities.
Main preparation process: The preparation of the Vision was principally
the work of the National Development Planning Commission. The NDPC first
sought to inject social and spatial considerations in to the economic
policy framework underlying the structural adjustment programme in 1987.
This effort was followed by the production of a human centered development
policy framework in 1991 by the Commission. To integrate long-term perspectives
into the ERP that would ensure that Ghana achieves continuos development
at an accelerating pace through the promotion of a human-centered, comprehensive
and integrated approach to development, the National Development Policy
Framework (NDPF) was drafted by the NDPC during 1991-1994. Sectoral ministries
and agencies, and, district authorities provided comments on goals and
hierarchy of goals and strategies of the NDPF.
·National Development Planning Commission.
Making People Matter A Human Development Strategy for Ghana.
Publication by NDPC (IDPG\SPD). December 1, 1991.
of Ghana, National Development Policy Framework. Volume I: Long Term
Development Objectives. National Development Planning Commission.
·Republic of Ghana, National Development
Policy Framework. Volume I: Long Term Development Objectives. National
Development Planning Commission. Revised May 1994.
·Republic of Ghana, Ghana-Vision
2020 (First Step: 1996-2000), Presidential Report to Parliament on Coordinated
Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies. December 1994.
on outcomes and effectiveness: The Vision has provided a guiding
and overarching reference point for the formulation and implementation
of various development strategies and programmes since 1996. However,
implementation of the First Medium Term Plan (1996-2000) has lagged while
the core strategic underpinnings of the Vision are yet to be integrated
into the development psyche of the nation as the people are not generally
familiar with what it would take to achieve the Vision.
Year initiated: September 1997
Brief description: It was the first national consensus building
exercise for all stakeholders to discuss economic and development policy
measures for growth under the Ghana Vision 2020. It was attended
by the President, Vice-President, Ministers and various other stakeholders,
and was supported by the UNDP.
Objectives: The fundamental objective of the National Economic Forum
was achieving a national consensus on policy measures for accelerated
growth, within the framework of Ghana-Vision 2020.
of preparation and implementation: The outcomes and consensus reached
have been integrated into national economic and development policy making.
III.Key stakeholders: It was attended by the following numbers of participants, keyed to
the Syndicate Groups they represented:
Macroeconomic stability (142)
·Economic Growth: Agriculture (83)
Economic Growth: Manufacturing (92)
·Employment and Human Development
The Post-Forum Committee to prepare Action Plans and integrate recommendations
had 52 members.
Overall, participation in the Forum was by several interest groups
Council of State,
groups (such as the Ghana Bar Association, Ghana Medical Association),
13) the military,
15) local authorities,
16) the CSIR,
association of Ghana,
bodies (such as the National Commission on Civic Education, CHRAJ),
Main preparation process: The NDPC invited several stakeholders,
grouped into four syndicate groups to discuss issues of macroeconomic
stability, agriculture, manufacturing and international competitiveness,
and, employment aimed at generating strategic policy recommendations for
reducing inflation and unemployment. A Post-Forum Committee synthesized
and harmonized the four Syndicate Group Reports into a comprehensive Forum
Report and a set of Action Plans
Linkages to Ghana-Vision 2020: The Forum was a mechanism for helping
review and affirm economic and development policy measures required for
accelerated growth as envisaged under the Ghana Vision 2020.
Key documents: Republic of Ghana National Economic Forum
at Accra International Conference Centre on 2-3 September 1997 on the
Theme: Achieving National Consensus on Policy Measures for Accelerated
Growth within the Framework of Ghana-Vision 2020.
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: The Forum provided
the opportunity for various stakeholders to reach consensus on key economic
issues and actions needed to underpin the achievement of the goals of
the Ghana Vision 2020. The Forum was well attended and the reports were
well received by government. However, implementation of several recommendations
has lagged. The new government would likely utilize the mechanism of
Comprehensive Development Framework
description: A development programming approach that takes a comprehensive
view of the entire development spectrum and provides a holistic framework
for identifying and analyzing development needs, and programming development
interventions from all partners in an integrated and consistent manner
designed to strengthen development planning and coordination across all
the development partners.
Key Objectives: The objectives of the CDF process were to engender:
inter-relationships, coherence and increased integration of sector polices
§a rapid shift by donors towards financing
of development programmes, instead of individual projects
§reduced government effort and resources in
managing different donor systems
§increased government ownership and management
of Ghanas development programme, and stronger partnership with
donors, civil society and the private sector.
§a more comprehensive pattern of resource allocation that reduces
Status of preparation and implementation: Preparation of the CDF
was completed in 1999 for the Tenth Consultative Group meeting in Accra
in November 1999.
Key stakeholders: Government of Ghana, civil society represented
by NGOs and other stakeholders under the ambit of SAPRI, and donors
Main preparation process: This is discussed in Section 4.
to Ghana-Vision 2020: The CDF provides the framework for development
assistance required to achieve poverty reduction as envisaged under Ghana-Vision
2020. The formulation of thematic areas covered by the CDF are framed
differently but in essence cover the same ground as addressed by the eight
thematic areas of the Second Step of the Ghana-Vision 2020. However,
the CDF serves more as a more immediate development programming tool while
Ghana-Vision 2020 provides a more long-term vision of national growth.
documents: Government of Ghana- A First Draft Comprehensive Development
Framework Towards Ghana Vision 2020. Tenth Consultative Group (CG) Meeting.
November 23-21, 1999. Accra. Ministry of Finance.
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: The CDF has yielded
favourable outcomes in terms of helping to better focus and redefine donor,
especially World Bank, development assistance to Ghana. The document
provided the framework for the World Banks new Country Assistance
Strategy for Ghana. The involvement of civil society in the preparation
of the document has enhanced their role in development programming.
Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS)
Year initiated: Developed in 1995/96, being updated in 2000-2001
description: A home-grown strategic approach to poverty reduction
through emphasis on economic growth, integrated rural development, improved
access of the poor to basic economic and social services, expanded employment
for urban poor, and, family planning.
Objectives: The overarching goal is reduction of poverty and general
improvement in the welfare of all Ghanaians. The objectives of the GPRS
include: (a) reducing the incidence and depth of both rural and urban
poverty, mainly through the acceleration of pro-poor growth, (b) improving
the income earning capabilities and opportunities for the poor and vulnerable,
(c) minimizing gender and geographical disparities, (d) facilitating
a healthier, better educated and more productive population.
of preparation and implementation: The development of the GPRS was
completed and has generated projectized interventions. A revision and
update of the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy process is under preparation.
The preparation of the GPRS is parallel to the preparation of the World
Bank-sponsored Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)
stakeholders: The update of the GPRS involves participation from several
stakeholder groups, including the NDPC, sectoral ministries and agencies,
local authorities, civil society organizations, professional bodies, academic
think tanks, and trades unions.
Main preparation process: The government, with the support of the
UNDP, produced a National Action Programme for Poverty Reduction in 1995.
This engendered the need for an institutional mechanism to coordinate
development of initiatives, resulting in the formation of an Inter-Ministerial
Committee served by an inter-agency and multi-sectoral Technical Committee
on Poverty (TCOP) that produced the Policy Focus for Poverty Reduction
in 1996. Under the ambit of the NDPCs Poverty Reduction Unit, a
Ghana PRS Task Force (now composed of the TCOP members) is coordinating
the process of updating the GPRS through the use of Core Teams to prepare
frameworks and programmes covering focus areas of the strategy.
to Ghana-Vision 2020: The overall poverty reduction process of the
Government is derived from and tied to the Ghana- Vision 2020. The objectives
of the 1995 poverty reduction strategy informed the goals and approach
adopted for poverty alleviation in the Vision 2020. The update of the
GPRS and the preparation of the Ghana Vision 2020 - Second Step framework
are linked in several ways:
six priority areas of the GPRS are covered by the Vision 2020 framework
GPRS is linked to the existing planning process with the GPRS deriving
its focus from the Vision 2020 Second Step policy framework,
timetables for the two processes were synchronized,
outputs of the Second Step process would be factored into the GPRS update,
guidelines for use by District Assemblies and sectoral agencies would
reflect the focus on poverty reduction as emerging from both the Vision
2020 and the updated GPRS.
of Ghana, Reducing Poverty through Improved Agriculture. Main Report
Prepared by the Government of Ghana for the Tenth Meeting of the Consultative
Group for Ghana. Accra November 23-24, 1999.
World Bank, Republic of Ghana Development Strategy for Poverty
Reduction. Report No. 20186-GH. March 8, 2000.
Republic of Ghana, Policy Focus for Poverty Reduction.
Technical Committee on Poverty (TCOP), Technical Secretariat, NDPC.
Accra. September 1996.
·World Bank, Ghana Poverty
Past, Present and Future. Report No. 14504-GH. Population and Human
Resources Division, Africa Region. June 29, 1995.
·Government of Ghana, National Action
Programme for Poverty Reduction. Ministry of local Government and Rural
Development, with assistance of UNDP. February 1995.
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: The GPRS has spawned
three major interventions: (a) the National Poverty Reduction Programme
with support from the UNDP, (b) The Social Investment Fund aimed at enhancing
access of the poor to basic services and local-level capacity-strengthening
with support from the UNDP, African Development Bank, (c) Community-based
Poverty Reduction Approaches initiative. Effectiveness of these projectized
interventions is hampered by several factors including lack of micro-credit
and implementation capacity weaknesses at the local level. Other initiatives
that have taken on board the poverty reduction objective include the Village
Infrastructure Project (VIP) and the Agricultural Services Sector Investment
Common Country Assessment (CCA)
Year initiated: 1997
Brief description: A participatory process for reviewing and analyzing
progress in national development goals and programmes and as foundation
for programming and advocating development assistance under the UN system.
Under the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), the
UN Mission has since 1997 undertaken the Common Country Assessment (CCA)
of the national development situation to provide standard reference for
the government and UN system organizations in terms of the status human
development, analysis of progress and problems in meeting common development
targets, and, basis for development programming.
·Provide an integrated
and cross-sectoral assessment of the status, problems and challenges
in achieving human development goals.
an instrument for programming and advocacy of development assistance
from the UN system in-country through the UNDAF mechanism.
Provide common framework for monitoring
the efficacy of UN development assistance
Provide a tool for improving development
planning and coordination between the government, development partners,
civil society and the private sector.
Status of preparation and implementation: The first CCA was prepared
in 1997 and used as an input into the preparation of Ghanas first
UNDAF for the period 1998-2000. The 1999 CCA formed the basis for the
formulation of Ghanas UNDAF 2001-2005 which prescribes the country
programmes of the UN agencies.
Key stakeholders: The Government of Ghana, all UN system agencies,
other development partners, representatives of civil society organizations
and the private sector.
Main preparation process: The preparation of the Assessment was
managed by Ghana UN Country Team, under the leadership of The Resident
Coordinator, with the government playing a leading role. The report was
prepared by six thematic groups as indicated below:
thematic work group
security and nutrition
of Food and Agriculture
sanitation and housing
of Works and Housing
of Employment and Social Welfare
Institutional Renewal Programme
Linkages to Ghana-Vision 2020: By helping to engender common understanding
and consensus of Ghanas development needs across themes, sectors
and donors, the CCA was to support the formulation of the Second Step
of the Ghana Vision 2020.
Key documents: Ghana
Common Country Assessment. United Nations, Joint Consultative Group on
Policy. March 1997.
Common Country Assessment 1999. Accra. August 18, 2000
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: The CCA has been effective
in joint programming of UN development resources by the government and
the UN system. The 1999 CCA was complementary to the CDF as it provided
a cross-cutting assessment of human development, in contrast to the CDF
process that was underpinned by sector and thematic group work. However,
the CCA has not received publicity as a development planning document
and is not referred to outside the UN system. Consequently, it was not
widely used in preparing the Second Step Policy Framework of Ghana Vision
2020 partly due to its low visibility and because its areas of thematic
classification did not closely match those of the Second Step formulation.
Renewable Natural Resources Sector Strategy (1996-2000)
Year initiated: 1995, completed in 1996.
Brief description: An integrated strategic approach to the management
of renewable natural resources (RNR) that ensures that various programmes
aimed at enhancing the contribution of sustainable natural resource management
to the accelerated social and economic development of Ghana are well-coordinated.
This is to improve the efficiency, impact and sustainability of sector
programmes. The strategy consists of a set of prioritized interventions
that could be implemented within the current development environment and
those that required significant reforms to overcome structural constraints
in the sector.
Key Objectives: The overall objective is that RNR is sustainably
managed for the benefit of present and future society. Specific aims
establish effective institutional and
legislative arrangements for the effective and efficient management
of renewable natural resources
enhance regeneration of RNR, including
increase the level of values-added to
make regulations in the RNR sector more
adopt appropriate technical options for
resource utilization and management
reduce economic over-dependence on RNR
Status of preparation and implementation: The preparation of the
strategy was completed. However, implementation has not been effective.
Key stakeholders: Different stakeholders participated in the development
of the strategy, but their scope could not make their involvement very
participatory. A full presentation of stakeholder participation in the
formulation of the RNRSS is presented in Section 5 of this report.
Main preparation process: The government fashioned a process of
consultations, consensus building and planning to ensure sustainable development
of RNR through the Consultative Group on Renewable Natural Resources beginning
with a Consensus Building workshop in September 1995. This was followed
by a Goal Oriented Project Planning (GOPP) workshop in November 1995,
a series of consultations, and, a Strategy Formulation workshop in March
1996 that resulted in the draft RNRSS. The draft Strategy was reviewed
at a Stakeholder Forum in July 1996.
Linkages to Ghana-Vision 2020: The strategy was developed in parallel
to the First Medium Term Plan of the Ghana Vision 2020. However, the
strategic framework for RNR management was in line with the First Step.
Government of the Republic of Ghana, National Development
Planning Commission. Report on Goal Oriented Project Planning Workshop
to Formulate a Strategic Programme for the Renewable Natural Resource
Sector in Ghana. November 8-11, 1995.
Government of the Republic of Ghana, National Development
Planning Commission. Workshop Report on Strategy Formulation for the
Renewable Natural Resource Sector in Ghana. March 28, 1996.
Government of the Republic of Ghana, National Development
Planning Commission. Report Stakeholder Forum on the Draft Renewable
Natural Resources Strategy (1996-2000). September 12-13, 1996.
Participatory Approaches Learning Study of the Process
of Formulating Renewable Natural Resources Sector in Ghana. Prepared
by George Botchie, George Ortsin, F. D. Tay, G. Laryea-Adjei for International
NGO Training and Research Centre (INTRAC), Oxford and UK Department
for International Department under the supervision of NDPC, Accra.
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: It is not clear whether
the government ever approved the RNRSS since the proposed institutional
structure for managing the strategy, including the establishment of an
inter-ministerial committee to issue policy guidelines and the expansion
of the District Environmental Management Committees (DEMCs) to embrace
other aspects of RNR management, was not set up. Furthermore, most of
the projectized interventions in the sector during the period arose from
sub-sectoral strategic plans, such as the National Biodiversity Strategy
(1998), Forest and Wildlife Policy (1994), the Forestry Development Master
Plan (1996-2000), and, the Forest Protection Strategy (1995). However,
these initiatives and subsequent ones, such as the Environmental Sanitation
Policy (May 1999) of the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development,
National Land Policy (June 1999) of the Ministry of Lands and Forestry,
and the Strategic Plan (1999-2003) of the Environmental Protection Agency
were in congruence with the objectives and components of the Renewable
Natural Resources Sector Strategy.
national strategies for sustainable development in Ghana
DAC High Level Meeting in May 1999 defined a national strategy for sustainable
development (nssd) as a strategic and participatory process of
analysis, debate, capacity strengthening, planning and action towards
sustainable development. The imperative is the integration of social
and environmental concerns into economic development objectives.
the OECD-DAC-developing country dialogues have engendered a modification
of that definition as follows: a participatory and continuously
improving system, which harnesses processes of analysis, debate, capacity-strengthening,
planning, innovation and investment for sustainable development.
the dynamics of development administration various development instruments
seek to address diverse development imperatives. Hence, there are several
strategies that seek to fulfill various development needs.
a first step in identifying a national strategy for sustainable development
in Ghana, it is essential to determine the extent to which various development
administration processes meet conditions for sustainability and strategic
orientation. This requires determining the parameters that make a planning
process achieve sustainable development.
is only now emerging on the parameters of strategic frameworks for sustainable
national development. The draft OECD/DAC Policy guidance for country-level
strategies for sustainable development recognizes the following elements
as necessary for a strategy process to achieve sustainable development:
Goals and Principles: A coherent vision, commitment, policies and
strategies to integrate economic, social and environmental objectives
Mechanisms: The following set of mechanisms are required
to implement the process of strategy development:
Research and analysis
Strategic environmental, economic and
Experimentation and innovation
Planning and decision-making
Monitoring and accountability
against the above parameters, there are several areas of weaknesses of
the Ghana Vision 2020. These include the following:
is no overall and integrative model that integrates macroeconomic,
sectoral, spatial/physical, and, financial aspects of planning.
does not specify and agree on trade-offs in integrating the various
pillars of the framework, such as environment, social and economic
- There was no
scenario analysis to form the basis for strategy formulation and there
has been no analysis of external linkages. Hence, the exercise is
less than strategic.
framework does not provide ways of dealing with constant change on
the path to achieving the goals of the vision.
policy objective priorities are not necessarily reflected in public
resource allocation and incentive structures.
these defects, compared with the CDF, CCA, and the RNRS, the Vision 2020
meets most of the criteria above. The Vision framework:
is most comprehensive development programming
is a more of a strategic mechanism than
most of the other;
defines the programmatic strategies required
to achieve long-term goals;
takes the long-term view;
has provisions for strategic steps to
achieve the vision (First Step, Second Step, etc);
has provisions for periodic review;
covers all the sectors needed to make
a vision sustainable (economic, social, NRM, governance, gender, etc);
utilizes a participatory process of preparation.
effect, the Vision 2020 is akin to an umbrella process that provides a
broad vision of long term development goals, the big picture within which
complementary strategies (such as GPRS and RNRS) can be identified as
tools towards achieving the broad picture of the Vision, and the overall
setting for the evolution of the institutional framework within which
sector strategies and programmes are developed and integrated. It provides
a guide for the way forward and to the various strategic approaches required
to reach overall national development goals.
stakeholders and processes in strategy work
discussion will center on the key actors and processes for formulating
and implementing four key strategy programmes to exemplify the process
of developing nssd in Ghana. These are: (a) Ghana Vision 2020, (b) the
CDF, (c) the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy, (d) the Renewable Natural
Formulating Vision 2020: methodology, process and participation
1 shows the process followed to prepare the Medium-Term Development Plan
(1996-2000). Steps 1-7 were concerned with the preparation of the NDPF.
As already explained, the NDPF was designed to provide a long-term perspective
to the preparation of the plan. Thus, although it was not the intention
of the NDPC to prepare a vision document, the long-term orientation of
the NDPF enabled the Government to refer to it as Vision 2020. Following
this decision, the Government directed the NDPC to initiate the process
of preparing the medium-term plan that would constitute the first step
in the implementation of Vision 2020.
Strategy Formulation Process Vision 2020 & Medium-Term Development
Stakeholder comments on goals
Synthesis of stakeholder responses
Hierarchy of goals and strategies
Review of Draft NDPF
Finalization of NDPF
Preparation of First Step (1996-2000)
Approval by Parliament
of First Medium-Term Plan
of Programme of Action
MDAs, DAs, Etc.
MDAs, DAs, Etc.
MDAs, DAs, Etc.
MDAs, DAs, Etc.
methodology for preparing Vision 2020 is similar to the approach used
in preparing conventional medium term plans. The NDPC established cross-sectoral
planning groups to identify development constraints, and to coordinate
ideas and proposals from Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies
(MDAs). These were then harmonized and published. The main participants
in the preparation process were the NDPC and the MDAs.
1 shows that the NDPC initiated the process of setting the development
goals for the NDPF. The Commission proposed a set of goals and objectives
and then sought the comments on the goals from MDAs and District Assemblies.
This general pattern whereby the NDPC took the initiative to prepare a
draft and then submitted it to comments by other stakeholders was a general
feature of the participatory process that was adopted to formulate the
NDPF. It should however be noted that the formulation of the NDPF was
mainly dominated by central government agencies, including the NDPC itself
preparation of the First Medium-Term Development Plan involved wide participation
by various stakeholders. After the Five-Year Policy Framework (The First
Step) was approved by Parliament in 1995 the preparation of the Medium-Term
Plan commenced with the NDPC distributing Guidelines for the preparation
of sector and district medium-term plans. These guidelines were sent
to all sector Ministries, Departments/Agencies and all District Assemblies
and Regional Coordinating Councils (RCCs).
Perspective National Medium-Term Plan was completed at the beginning of
1997. This required the coordination and harmonization of three sets
5-Year district development plans by
all 110 District/Municipal/Metropolitan Assemblies;
Sector plans by all sector Ministries,
Departments and agencies;
10 Regionally harmonized plans out of
the district plans;
addition to the planning agencies of the District Assemblies, RCCs, MDAs
and NDPC, the synthesis of the plan involved academic and research institutions,
TUC, workers and farmers associations, the business community and civil
society organizations including NGOs and CBOs. Many of these institutions
and stakeholders were grouped in six Cross Sectoral Planning Groups.
The Plan also benefited from critical comments from distinguished Ghanaians
and professionals working in Ghana and overseas, international donor community
and from members of the Governing Body of NDPC.
The Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF) process in Ghana
original framework for coordinating development assistance by all development
partners and for reviewing governments development agenda was the
Consultative Group (CG) meeting mechanism. This review, programming and
monitoring activity grew from the Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) and
provided the stage for the government to present its programmes, report
achievements and problems, and, seek development assistance from the multi-donor
forum. The forum was held outside Ghana.
part of the transition from the ERP era, the regular CG process was replaced
by a biennal Country Programme Review meetings held in Ghana (at Akuse)
that focused only on World Bank-supported programmes. Other donors who
co-financed these Bank-supported projects were excluded from participating
in these meetings.
coordinate donor activities more effectively through frequent and more
regular interaction between the government and all its development partners,
to share information and resolve development policy and programme design
and implementation issues in an integrated manner, the Akuse meetings
were replaced during the first quarter of 1999 with the Mini-CG process.
This quarterly meeting of government and all development partners broadened
the scope of consultation and shortened the time interval for those meetings
from two years to three months. The government chairs the Mini-CG.
Mini-CG process laid the basis for the preparation of Ghanas CDF
through the setting up of a network of Sectoral Coordinating Groups (SCGs)
to act as fopcal poins for the development of the comprehensive framework.
The SCGs comprised the sector MDA as lead national agency and development
partners as focal support. The concept of focal support replaced that
of lead donor under the previous donor coordination mechanism.
The list of fourteen SCGs is presented in Annex D.
SCGs prepared Issues Papers on their respective sectors covering: (a)
situation analysis, problems and challenges, (b) development strategy
and programmes being utilized to address issues by various stakeholders,
(c) key indicators for monitoring progress. These papers formed the basis
for the preparation of Ghanas CDF by a joint government-donor team,
albeit with major input from the World Bank.
objectives of the CDF are :
A more coherent set of inter-related
A rapid move by donors away from the
financing of individual projects towards the financial of programmes
A reduction in the "bureaucracy
of development", and the huge burden on Government of administering
different donor systems.
A much greater degree of ownership and
management of the development programme by Ghana, and a genuine partnership
with donors, civil society and the private sector.
A pattern of financing that is more comprehensive,
covering gaps that exist now and reducing competition between donors
in other areas.
CDF formed the basis for Ghanas request for assistance and donors
commitments at the 10th multi-donor CG and the first to be
held in Accra in December 1999. The CDF is considered to be a first draft
that will continue to be refined and updated as a living document.
The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS)
The government has
been concerned about the poverty impacts of its economic programmes of
the 1980 and made initial attempts to address these concerns through the
mechanism of the Programme of Actions to Mitigate the Social Costs of
Adjustment (PAMSCAD) initiated in the late 1980s. To provide an empirical
base for assessing impacts on living standards, the Ghana Living standards
Survey (GLSS) was initiated in 1987. By 1995, information from three
rounds of the GLSS and from the Ghana Extended Poverty Study
helped to more accurately measure the extent, depth and effects of poverty,
and provide the impetus for heightened action to address poverty as a
central issue of Ghanas development agenda.
Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, with the support of
the UNDP, produced a National Action Programme for Poverty Reduction in
1995. In response to the need for a national institutional mechanism
to coordinate the development of initiatives to address poverty in an
integrated manner, the government formed the Inter-Ministerial Committee
on Poverty Reduction (IMCPR) in 1995. The IMCPR, chaired by the minister
of finance, and comprising ministers in charge of health, education, environment,
science and technology, employment and social welfare, food and agriculture,
local government and rural development as well heads of the NDPA and the
National Council on Women and Development, is the highest policy making
organ on povertyrelated issues in Ghana.
The IMCPR is backed by
an inter-agency and multi-sectoral Technical Committee on Poverty (TCOP)
that produced the Policy Focus for Poverty Reduction in 1996, with the assistance
of a local private consultant. The consultants preliminary report
was the basis for a government meeting with donors in December 1995 and
a Workshop on Poverty in February 1996 that was attended by a wide range
of stakeholders. Under
the ambit of the NDPCs Poverty Reduction Unit (PRU), a Ghana PRS Task
Force (now composed of the TCOP members) is coordinating the process of
updating the GPRS through the use of Core Teams to prepare frameworks and
programmes covering focus areas of the strategy. These focus areas are:
macroeconomic framework, employment, human resource development, vulnerability,
activities of the IMCPR permeates all planning levels within the decentralized
planning system. The District Planning Coordinating Units (DPCUs) at
the district level and the Policy, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
(PPMED) heads of ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) are to ensure
that poverty concerns are integrated into their policy and planning processes
and serve as contact points for the NDPC/PRU.
role of the Core Teams is central to the process of preparing the updated
GPRS. The concept is akin to that of the Cross Sectoral Planning Groups
(CSPGs) being utilized for the preparation of the Second Medium Term Plan
under the Vision 2020. The GPRS Core Teams are formed with membership
from relevant government agencies, the PRU, donor agencies and civil society
groups. The Teams are assisted by a consultant.
work of the Core Teams in preparing the GPRS is phased into three stages
involving diagnosis, strategy formulation, and programming. Thus, the
functions of Core Teams are to: (a) conduct situation analyses of poverty
and its development implications and prepare strategic frameworks, (b)
define strategic areas of action and develop policies and implementation
strategies, and, (c) prepare poverty reduction programmes with accompanying
resource, institutional and structural reform implications.
planned steps in the preparation of the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy
Agreement by IMCR and TCOP on framework
for preparing the GPRS
Launching of GPRS process
Formation of Core Teams
Orientation for commencement of work
by Core Teams
Consultations with civil society representatives
on situation analysis, strategy and programmes
Technical Harmonization Forum
Consensus building forum on First draft
GOG/Donor Consultative workshop on Strategy
and programmes for implementing GPRS
Finalization of Ghana's Poverty Reduction
Publication and Circulation of updated
terms of the timeframe for the preparation, the update of the GPRS was
launched in July 2000 and the Task Force established in August 2000.
The revised strategy is scheduled to be completed by March 2001 but would
participation is an important part of the GPRS process aimed at assuring
ownership through taking into consideration concerns of stakeholders,
sharing information and providing feedback, and providing a platform goal
setting, prioritization and target determination. Emphasis is on avoiding
the creation of parallel consultation and participation process by using
existing avenues and mechanisms. Consultations are to take place within
government and between government and civil society groups, private sector,
the vulnerable and poor and development partners.
key stakeholder in the process include the IMPR, TCOP, NDPC/PRU, donors,
Core Team members, consultant, district assemblies, civil society organizations,
labour, employers, religious bodies, academic think tanks, and the media.
mechanisms being utilized include:
consensus building workshops and meetings
public information campaigns
information dissemination through various
field visits, interviews and focus-group
consultative group meeting on the draft
final GPRS document
GPRS process would ensure monitoring and accountability through emphasis
on community participation in monitoring and evaluation using completed
Participatory Poverty Assessments as the baseline.
is expected that at the end of the exercise, the updated GPRS would satisfy
the six core principles espoused by the World Bank that underly the preparation
and implementation of poverty reduction strategies by being country-driven,
results-oriented, comprehensive, prioritized, partnership-oriented and
driven by a long-term perspective.
Formulating the Renewable Natural Resource Strategy: methodology, process
study of the process adopted to formulate the Renewable Natural Resource
Strategy (1996-2000) is instructive in several respects. Unlike the Vision
2020 that did not specifically set out to design a strategy, the RNR Strategy
process was organized to formulate a strategy for the sector. This means
that it could shed more light on some of the strategy processes that were
not evident from the Vision 2020 process. A second reason for interest
in the RNR Strategy is that it covers sectors that are central to Agenda
21 and sustainable development. Finally, a detailed study has been carried
out to assess the participatory approaches that were adopted in formulating
the RNR Strategy. Such a study will enable us to deepen our understanding
of the participatory processes adopted in formulating development strategies
in Ghana. Indeed the participatory approach followed in the RNR Strategy
process is typical of the approaches adopted in the various sectors.
development and management of the Renewable Natural Resource sector cuts
across several sectors of the economy, including agriculture, forestry,
livestock, fisheries, water and the environment, together with the concomitant
agriculture-related industries. The Vision 2020 document identifies objectives,
targets and strategies for all these sectors, but not in an integrated
manner. For example, agriculture, including fisheries, forestry and livestock
appears under the Production chapter; Water sector falls under the Social
Development chapter, while the Environment is addressed under a separate
Government of Ghana has over the years initiated a number of programmes
to manage the RNR sector. A lot of assistance has been received from
a number of donor agencies, Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations
in its attempt to develop and manage the sector. These efforts and assistance
have, however, been project and sub-project based without due consideration
to the sector-wide needs, and the requisite linkage and coordination arrangements
to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. To address these issues the GoG,
with assistance from the United Kingdom Overseas development administration
(UKODA), initiated a process aimed at formulating the RNR Sector Strategy
(1996-2000). The aim is to ensure a coordinated and strategic approach
to RNR development and management in Ghana.
key methodology for formulating the RNR strategy was the Goal Oriented
Project Planning (GOPP) approach. The application of GOPP ensures a consistent
train of thought and procedure and a uniform understanding of terms used.
As a tool originally designed for planning project preparation and implementation
phases, it provides a framework for ensuring that project inputs, output,
purpose, and development goals are linked logically.
Table 2 explains the participatory process used to formulate the Renewable
Natural Resources Strategy (19962000). The matrix shows that the
formulation of the RNR Strategy involved six steps and took about a year
step in the process had defined objective(s) and outputs. For example,
the initial workshop was aimed at getting participants to deliberate on
issues, which affect the development of the RNR sector, and to build consensus
on these issues. This step involved mainly the participation of senior
officials responsible for planning functions in the stakeholder ministries,
department and agencies. On the other hand, the objectives of the Stakeholder
Forum reflected the need to reach consensus on all the key issues regarding
the strategy and to ensure that all stakeholders were part of this important
step. A number of institutions and stakeholders participated in the Forum
including Ministers of State, Heads of MDAs, representatives of Parliament,
research institutes, Regional Coordinating Councils/District Assemblies,
multilateral and bilateral agencies, NGOs, private sector and political
review of participants expectations of the Sogakope Workshop provides
insights into the interests that were represented at the meeting. Ministries,
Departments and Agencies were concerned to ensure that there was consensus
on a workable, well-coordinated, sustainable and implementable plan for
the RNR sector. The NDPC representatives were interested in ensuring
an enhanced commitment to improved coordination and collaboration in the
RNR sector. The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Developments
interests concerned how the Ministry, the RCCs and District Assemblies
could support the RNR Strategy implementation in the regions and districts.
The NGOs wanted to identify and collaborate with other stakeholders in
RNR areas of activity that were of interest to the NGOs. Finally, donor
agencies were concerned to see a clearly defined policy framework within
which they could provide assistance to the RNR sector. Clearly, these
diverse but complementary interests go to support the need for to ensure
maximum stakeholder participation in strategy formulation exercises.
Analysis of Participation
RNR Strategy formulation process has been the focus of an intensive study
conducted by Botchie et al. This study sought, among other things, to
analyze a historical overview of the RNR strategy formulation process,
the level of participation and effectiveness of the participatory tools
used. The primary data for the study was drawn from a sample frame of
primary and secondary stakeholders who participated at each stage of the
RNR strategy formulation process.
3 shows a summary of conclusions of the study regarding assessment of
stakeholder participation. Stakeholders were classified as having had
no participation, low participation, or high participation on the basis
of criteria explained in Table 3. The study revealed that the RNR Strategy
was formulated through a participatory approach. The study, however,
concluded that the participatory process advanced towards the finalization
stage. The study did not quantify the extent of participation of the
various institutions and stakeholders.
Table 4 we have attempted to quantify the levels of participation of the
stakeholders in the RNR Strategy process. Using Table 3 as a basis, we
assigned numerical values of 0, 1, or 2 to no participation,
low participation, and high participation, respectively.
We then proceeded to compute the level of participation of a stakeholder
group in the process by dividing its column score by the possible maximum
score of 12 if it had high participation at all six stages of the process.
Table 4 shows that central government stakeholders (both primary and secondary)
dominated the participatory process. It is also apparent that the level
of participation of secondary stakeholders in central government was higher
than that of primary stakeholders such as the Forestry Department, Lands
Commission, Wildlife Department, and Timber Export Development Board.
The participation of the private sector institutions, local authorities,
and traditional authorities was low.
results of the Botchie et al study overstate the level of participation
in the RNR Strategy formulation process. This resulted from the fact
that the study interviewed stakeholders who were invited to participate
in the process. Thus if a more representative list of stakeholders had
been drawn up as a basis for assessing participation, the level of overall
participation would have been lower than the 36 percent level recorded
for all stakeholders in Table 4.
of participation in the RNRS formulation process
et al : Participatory Approaches Learning Study of the process of Formulating
Renewable Natural resources Sector Strategy in Ghana, March 20, 1998
CG Central government agencies; LG Local Government;
TA Traditional Authorities; PS Private Sector; NG
NGOs; EA External Agencies
H Low participation indicates a display of mutual understanding,
open consultation, ownership and commitment by a group of stakeholders.
L Low participation indicates little ownership and commitment
to the process despite some representation at meetings.
N No participation means that a particular stakeholder
group did not participate at a specified stage in the process
Strategy Formulation Process: Renewable Natural Resources Strategy (1996
Initiation of Process
Hold initial consultations to agree on need to undertake the strategy
Deliberate on issues which affect the sustainable
development of RNR sector
Directors, Directors of PPMEDs of MOFA, MEST, MLF, MLGRD, Forestry Dept.,
NDPC (Chair); UK/ODA
Identified key constraints on coordination
and sustainability for development of RNR
Consultative Group formed
Use the Goal Oriented Project Planning
(GOPP) approach to prepare a strategic plan for the development of the
local government officials
strategic framework for the development of the RNR sector
March 28, 1996
Formulate a draft RNR Sector Strategy
District Assemblies, Research Institutes, NGOs, Donors
Renewable National Resources sector strategy (1996 2000)
Strategy Finalization (Stakeholder Forum)
Accra 12 13 Sept. 1996
Inform stakeholders of the process
Reach consensus on Draft Strategy
Define institutional responsibilities and arrangements for
coordinating implementation of Strategy
Identify mechanisms to integrate strategy
into the national planning system
Define mechanisms for local level client
consultations on Strategy
Define mechanisms to implement the Strategy
participants including Ministers of State, Chief Directors and Chief Executives
of relevant MDAs, Research Institutes RCCs/District Assemblies, Parliament,
Donors, Embassies, NGOs, Private Sector, Coordinators of relevant RNR
projects, Political Parties
Finanlized RNR Strategy
Defined process to secure endorsement by
Government and implementtation
institutions and initiatives
Issues of the current situation of strategy work
current situation of strategy development and implementation has been
discussed in earlier Sections 3 and 4 with respect to when they were initiated,
the main focus and aims, status of preparation and implementation, key
stakeholders, main preparation process, observations on outcomes and effectiveness,
and, linkages to Ghana Vision 2020, if any.
sections covers other issues of the integrating institutions and initiatives
within which the frameworks for sustainable national development were
prepared and implemented. The discussion also supplements that on the
institutional context of the frameworks.
Local level formal strategy and planning process: the District Development
noted earlier, the Vision 2020 policy framework is operationalized by
a series of 5-year medium-term plans prepared and implemented by the District
1992 Republican Constitution specified a decentralized local government
system that ensures that functions, powers, resources and responsibilities
are transferred from the central government to local government. To effect
the 1992 constitutional provisions, the Local Government Act of 1993 (Act
462), which replaced PNDC Law 207, established the district assemblies
as district planning authorities within the framework of the new decentralized
planning system which was legislated under the National Development Planning
Commission Act 1994 (Act 480) and the National Development Planning (Systems)
5.1.2 Linkage with
development of Vision 2020 framework for long-term development was not
linked explicitly to global conventions such as on biodiversity, climate
change, desertification, and the Law of the Sea, but these issues (except
that relating to the sea) were considered by the CSPGs in integrating
environmental concerns into the framework and medium-term plans.
Inter-relationships between current processes
exist for complementarities among the various strategic approaches and
for integration between them. This is because, due to its long-term vision,
comprehensiveness, and integrated approach, the Vision 2020 frameworks
provides an over-arching strategic framework for development administration
programming in Ghana. The Ghana Vision 2020 provides the guiding framework
for several of the current strategic processes while at the same time
incorporating many of the processes directly within its framework.
development of some planning initiatives started before the finalization
of the Vision 2020 framework. However, these were either a system of
managing development administration (such as decentralization) or sectoral
strategies (such as the RNRS or the medium-term agricultural development
strategy and programme). Indeed, the decentralization programme started
before the preparation of the pre-cursor to the Vision (the NDPF) was
initiated. However, in the spirit of building on existing work, Vision
2020 took on board strategy work in existence at the time of its preparation,
such as the poverty strategy and SAPRI.
the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS), its objectives informed the
goals and approach adopted for poverty alleviation in the Vision 2020
while the revision of the GPRS is being undertaken within the framework
of the preparation of the second medium term plan of the Vision 2020.
a planning approach, Ghana - Vision 2020 adopts the participatory approach
to and promotes ownership of development policies and programmes through
national consensus building on strategic development issues that cover
the whole spectrum of Ghana's development needs. This strategic approach
to identifying and proposing ways of addressing development issues through
consensus mechanisms also underlie the preparation of the CDF.
core development ingredient of the World Bank's Comprehensive Development
Framework (CDF) and the United Nations' Development Assistance Framework
(UNDAF) and Japan's Integrated Human Development Programme (IHDP) for
Ghana have been adequately captured under Ghana - Vision 2020. These
three initiatives fit into the strategies and methodology adopted under
the policy issues contained in Ghana - Vision 2020 document. For example,
the network of Sectoral Coordinating Groups under the CDF cover essentially
the thematic areas under the Second Step Policy Framework of the Ghana-Vision
SHOWING INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STRATEGIES]
Cross-sectoral linkages between government institutions
the extent and efficacy of cross-sectoral linkages between government
departments and institutions, all key strategic frameworks envisaged strong
linkages. For example, the Vision 2020, CDF and CCA all utilize cross-sectoral
planning or coordinating groups and identify lead and supporting implementing
MDA for each thematic areas covered in their frameworks. Correspondingly,
there are several instances of cross-sectoral linkages among MDAs at the
level of project design and implementation. For example, under the Village
Infrastructure Project (VIP), the lead agency of the Ministry of Food
and Agriculture collaborates with the Ministries of Roads and Transport,
and the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. As another
example, all developments in mining are controlled by the Ministries of
Mines and Energy, land and Forestry, and the EPA. Also, there are many
inter-ministerial coordinating mechanisms, such as for the GPRS. Overall,
however, intersectoral coordination in development programme implementation
is generally weak.
4 discussed in some detail the involvement of various institutions in
strategy development. In this section, we focus on the Vision 2020 and
the Medium-Term implementation plans.
very wide variety of governmental, non-governmental, private sector and
civil society groups have been involved in developing the First and Second
Step Policy Frameworks. These include the NDPC, MDAS, Ghana Real Estate
Developers Association, private think tanks, private press houses, the
Private Enterprise Foundation, National Council on Women and Development,
Ghana National Association of Farmers and Fishermen, the universities,
organized labour groups, and traditional authorities. [ADD
COMPLETE LIST FROM NDPC]
scope of participating institutions has been very broad in an attempt
to facilitate an all-inclusive involvement of key stakeholder groups.
Nonetheless, a few notable groups or institutions relevant to sustainable
development could have been included at the formulation stage of the medium-term
policy framework. These include: constitutional bodies such as the National
Council for Civic Education and CHRAJ, queenmothers (as distinct from
chiefs who tend to dominate participation by traditional leaders), religious
leaders, micro-finance operators, representatives of the association of
private schools and hospitals, and the Conference of Heads of Assisted
Secondary Schools. [CHECK WITH NDPC
LIST; JUSTIFY THEIR INCLUSION]
nature of preparation approach adopted by NDPC as such that no specific
roles or responsibilities were assigned to participating institutions
to produce background papers on the basis of institutional affiliation.
Instead, all institutions contributed to the common agenda and programmes
of the CSPGs in which they participated. Thus, it is difficult to assess
the effectiveness of different institutions in relation to their roles
regarding the development of the Vision 2020 framework.
structure and institutional representation on CSPG were determined by
the NDPC based on factors such as: the need for adequate representation
of all major stakeholder groups, inclusion of key knowledgeable individuals,
the need for a manageable size of the CSPGs, and, the availability of
financial resources to support the activities of the groups and the entire
process. A consultant serviced each CSPG. The Terms of Reference (TORs)
developed to guide the work of the CSPGs and the consultants were adequate.
However, the TORs did not include grassroots consultations due to time
and financial constraints.
Enabling institutional conditions for strategy work
is no unique steering mechanism for overseeing the preparation of the
various strategic frameworks as adopted its own mechanism. The NDPC has
oversight responsibilities for the preparation, coordination, implementation
and monitoring of the medium-term plans and strategic plans prepared by
the District Assemblies and the MDAs. The preparatory mechanism utilized
by the NDPC involves the CSPGs that prepare draft policy frameworks reporting
to the Commission which reviews and finalizes the medium term development
policy framework and issues planning guidelines to inform the actual preparation
of development plans and strategies. Thus, the CSPG mechanism involves
both preparation and oversight responsibilities.
similar structured approach has been adopted for steering the preparation
of the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS). As shown in Section 3,
the coordination and oversight responsibilities for the preparation of
the GPRS is ultimately entrusted to the inter-ministerial coordinating
group via the NDPC (Poverty Reduction Unit). Regarding the CDF, a smaller
group comprising representatives of the government and the World Bank
coordinated the sectoral groups while UNICEF and the UN Resident Coordinator
performed the steering role for the CCA.
a large extent, the District Assemblies follow the planning process entailed
in the Vision 2020 medium term planning process more than the MDAs. Although
this is their second experience with the planning process, the DAs appear
to have assimilated the routine of 5-year medium term planning. The DAs
understand their roles and responsibilities under the new planning system,
particularly that they are responsible for preparing and implementing
their own plans.
its part, the NDPC fully understands its roles and responsibilities regarding
the preparation, coordination, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
of development planning in Ghana. It has been very alive to its responsibilities
to the best of its abilities, despite the many constraints it faces.
These include: inadequate financial and human resources, low visibility
in the public eye, low support of the executive to support NDPC enforce
compliance with responsibilities of partner institutions necessary for
effective discharge of its responsibilities, and, the generally slow progress
towards integrating the planning function in the practice of development
administration in Ghana. [ADD/MODIFY]
efforts at enhancing the participatory nature of strategy development,
the top-down mentality persist in development programming. For example,
the District Assemblies (DAs) have not been involved in the formulation
of policy frameworks for the First and Second Step periods of the Vision
2020. The DAs were not represented in the Cross-Sectoral Planning Groups
that prepared the Frameworks, as their role was limited to receiving and
complying with Planning Guidelines from the NDPC after the preparation
of the Frameworks. Similarly, the DAs were not involved in preparing
the CDF and the CCA.
participation in the planning process and the effectiveness of that involvement
by the District Assemblies have been hampered by several constraints.
financial resource base of the assemblies,
skills, manpower and methodology to fully operationalize bottom-up
of clarity regarding the nature and management of the intended shifts
in power, functions and resources among various levels and agencies
of government under decentralization
among staff of decentralized agencies regarding their institutional
donor support activities at the local level
the implementation process of the First Step was unable to achieve programmed
goals due to several factors, including:
awareness of the Vision among the populace
of the NDPC to effectively coordinate sector planning by the MDAs due
to a low resource base and the tendency of MDAs to view their programmes
budgetary resources for development work
linkages between the goals and targets of many MDAs to the First Step
of the District Assemblies to achieve their goals and targets
noteworthy feature of development programme implementation in Ghana is
the high dependence on donor funding for financing the cost of implementing
the strategies. For example, during the period 1996-1999, 61 percent
of total government capital expenditure was foreign financed.
Country development framework coordination
key aspect of assessing the institutional context for the development
of national strategies for sustainable development is the effectiveness
of coordination. Regarding the Vision 2020, coordination between the
NDPC and MDAs in the preparation of medium-term policy framework has been
fairly effective since most MDAs participated in the development of the
frameworks. However, coordination between the NDPC and the MDAs regarding
the preparation of sector strategic plans by the latter has been less
than effective as the MDAs often prepared their plans with little input
from NDPC or notification to NDPC of their intentions and arrangements.
the development of district plans under the Second Step of the Vision
220, resource constraints slowed the timeliness of completion of the policy
framework in time for the DAs to initiate the preparation of the second
5-year plans. Consequently, to enable the DAs meet their cyclical timeframe
and to ensure coordination of the preparation of those plans, the NDPC
completed the planning guidelines for the 2001-2005 medium-term plans
before finalizing the second step policy framework.
between strategic initiatives, particularly between Vision 2020 and the
CDF and CCA has been at the level of ensuring consistency among the objectives
of the various initiatives. However, since the CDF and CCA are of shorter-term
duration than the Vision, it is not clear how the milestones in the two
donor-driven initiatives relate empirically to the Vision 2020 targets.
clear case of less than adequate coordination exists between the institutions
responsible for strategic initiatives and the Ministry of Finance and
the Ghana Investments Promotion Centre. Two points are worth noting regarding
strategic planning and public sector financing. First, although the thematic
issues of the Vision 2020 policy framework include the programming of
public finances to support the achievement of programmed goals and targets,
there is a dichotomy among the two as public finance programming develops
a life of its own that is often unrelated to programmed requirements.
Second, Ghana adopted a medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) in 1999
involving the specification of mission statements and objectives, strategic
plans and the prioritization and costing of MDAs policies and programme
outputs. However, this system is yet to be synchronized with Vision 2020.
aspect of the content for strategic initiatives is the relationship between
strategic initiatives and international and cross-border issues and commitments.
The Second Step Policy framework of the Vision 2020 explicitly deals with
regional issues by including regional cooperation and integration as one
of the thematic areas aimed at: (a) implementing ECOWAS priority programmes
designed to accelerate regional integration, (b) establishing a Ghana-Nigeria
fast-track mechanism to push the regional integration agenda forward,
(c) improving national capacity to manage ECOWAS programmes more effectively.
of the most important yet difficult mechanisms in the strategy process
has been monitoring the Vision 2020 and its implementation through the
medium-term plans. The NDPC has developed monitoring formats that they
would use to collect feedback information from MDAs and the DAs. However,
the NDPC has been unable to implement this system, as it expected the
MDAs and DAs to regularly submit monitoring information. Furthermore,
most of the indicators developed to monitor the First Step framework were
implementation steps or output variables keyed to the Action Plans and
could not be used to track progress on achieving the main Vision 2020
goals and targets.
vision and commitment to strategy processes
1. The key stakeholders that need to have a common and shared vision regarding
the national strategy process are:
the government, comprising the executive,
legislature, judiciary, Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and
civil society, including traditional authorities,
civil groups and the general citizenry
An aspect of participation that deserves special mention
was the failure to involve political parties in the decision to formulate
the NDPF (Vision 2020). Having regard to the time frame covered by Vision
2020, the political parties should have been involve in decisions on the
methodology, processes and participation of stakeholders involved. Although
political parties were not in existence in Ghana at the time the NDPF
was being formulated, efforts should have been made at the earliest opportunity
to seek their views on these preliminary issues.
The Ghana-Vision 2020 is regarded within certain political
circles as the response of a particular government to the constitutional
imperative to produce a coordinated social and economic policy framework
for development. Consequently, other political parties have not demonstrated
an affinity for the Ghana-Vision 2020 as a national vision. Nonetheless,
political parties participated in various stakeholder for a on the economic
policy framework for the First Step of the Ghana-Vision 2020, culminating
in their involvement in the National Economic Forum during which consensus
was reached on several areas of national economic policy.
In general, due to the relatively limited visioning process
and inadequate broad-based stakeholder participation underlying the development
of the National Development Policy Framework (NDPF) that subsequently
became the Ghana-Vision 2020, the nature of political commitment to the
Vision is more partisan than broad-based, as political party ownership
of the Vision does not appear to be broad-based. Consequently, the future
of the Vision and the Second Step Policy Framework, as currently fashioned,
is in doubt as the new government has not yet made a policy determination
on how it would treat the Vision and the Policy Framework. We are unsure
of its likely attitude and posture regarding the Vision since it has not
yet made any official statement on the Vision and it has not yet announced
the outlines of its economic policy framework.
Regarding the nation at large, it appears that the majority
of the citizenry are aware that there is something called Vision 2020
that provides a long-term goal of achieving a middle-income status by
the year 2020. However, they do not know the contents of the Vision nor
what it entails to achieve it.
MDAs and local authorities attempt to derive the raison
detre and policies of their development planning efforts from the
Ghana-Vision 2020 First Step. This shows some degree of commitment of
the administrative arm of government to the Vision.
However, the NDPF is not very much in the public domain.
Hence, most people refer to the First Step as Vision 2020.
The private sector exhibits a yearning for long-term growth
and the need to fashion a common national front to achieve broad-based
sustainable growth. This is evidence from their participation in various
institutional arrangements on consensual policy formulation. These originated
from the days of the Private Sector Consultative Group, through the formation
of the Private Enterprise Foundation, involvement of the private sector
in government investment promotion trips overseas to the participation
of the private sector in more than eight workshops, conferences and forums
Five of the latter are noteworthy as they focused on building
consensus on important economic issues facing the country, especially
addressing inflation and re-gaining macroeconomic stability through government
and private sector (and other stakeholder) dialogues. These were:
Inflation Management Workshop in May 1996
at Akosombo (with participants including political parties, labour and
National Forum on the State of the Economy,
organized by the Tripartite Committee (Government, Ghana Employers Association
(GEA) and the Trade Union Congress) at the end of May 1996 at Akosombo
Forum for Policy Dialogue: Towards a Re-Energized
Partnership for Rapid Economic Growth, organized by the PEF in March 1977
Conference on Ghana Reaching the Next Level
through Global Competitiveness: A Public-Private Partnership, promoted
by the PEF in June 1977 at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
The National Economic Forum at the Accra
International Conference Centre in September 1997.
sector participation in these forums reflects a desire for a compact or
social agreement among development partners on how to move the economy
forward. Despite these numerous efforts at deriving consensual policy
on the growth of the economy, the private sector feels that agreed outcomes
at these forums are not being effectively implemented as the environment
for private sector growth remains weak.
Lessons learned from
Ghanas experience with strategies for sustainable national development:
The pace of Ghanas development has not matched the depth
of its experience with development programming due to several reasons:
concept of implementing development programmes within the framework of
a long-term vision is relatively new as the previous development planing
efforts were basically medium term planning,
few of the previous development plans were fully implemented over their
was relatively little commitment by most previous governments to the development
plans they themselves formulated;
participation in the design of the development plans was either non-existent
or very low and ineffective.
There is the need to state up-front the expected output
in the design of a national strategy. The developers of Ghana-Vision 2020
set out to prepare a medium-term plan but realized they needed a long-term
framework, hence they prepared the NDPF. They did not set out to produce
a long-term vision.
For a nation to develop an effective and sustainable strategy
for development, it needs to apply the appropriate methodology for its
visioning process. For example, the use of GOPP methodology does not
directly address the issue of scenarios (forecasting) of the future.
A NSSD needs to contain fall-backs as part of the strategy
content to address vulnerabilities to assure resilient and sustainable
national livelihood. It is not enough to provide for reviews or implementation
steps, as in the Ghana-Vision 2020 as the major corrective or re-aligning
feature. The Ghana-Vision 2020 does not provide alternatives or fall-backs
based on scenario analysis.
To achieve effective participation and quality of work, terms such
as strategy need to clearly defined.
For enhanced shared vision, the ownership factor has to
be raised through appropriate participatory processes. Regarding the nation
at large, it appears that the majority of the citizenry are aware that
there is something called Vision 2020 that provides a long-term goal of
achieving a middle-income status by the year 2020. However, they do not
know the contents of the Vision nor what it takes to achieve it. Furthermore,
since the NDPF is not very much in the public domain, most people refer
to the First Step as Vision 2020.
A key finding was that the process of participation in the
design of strategy work has been dominated by the ministries, departments
and agencies (MDAs). In the main, these institutions decided on the need
to undertake the strategy formulation exercises, proposed the development
objectives to be achieved, decided on which stakeholders to invite, and
selected the methodology and processes to be used. However, since national
development objectives should be determined through a political process
of consulting as many stakeholders as possible, more direct participation
by other stakeholders would have enhanced the ownership and commitment
to the Vision.
For effective commitment and participation, stakeholders need time
to prepare for their participation in forums and workshops held to elicit
For participation to be effective, outcomes need to be actualized
to enhance commitment. For example, the private sector feels that results
from consultative sessions on the economy have not been completely or
effectively implemented resulting a less-than optimal environment for
private sector development.
use of brainstorming as the key approach to participation
has limitations in ensuring total participation. The nominal group technique
is more effective in eliciting response from all participants in a group
participation by all social or pressure groups is enhanced by advance
information, education and communication campaigns on the process, objectives,
methodology and expected outcomes to all potential participants. In the
absence of this, ministries and departments and those they select to attend,
dominate participation in stakeholder functions related to strategy work.
This is an issue of equitable and timely access to advance information
by all potential participants.
political parties were not in existence in Ghana at the time the NDPF
was being formulated, efforts should have been made at the earliest opportunity
to seek their views on the methodology, processes and participation of
stakeholders involved to facilitate broad-based political commitment to
the Vision. Nonetheless, political parties participated in various stakeholder
forums on the economic policy framework for the First Step of the Ghana-Vision
2020, culminating in their involvement in the National Economic Forum
during which consensus was reached on several areas of national economic
terms of donor versus government-led processes, donor-led processes are
not necessarily less participatory than home-grown processes. In addition,
there is variation in the participatory nature of different donor-led
processes. For example, the Sustainable Natural Resource Management Strategy
(supported by DFID) was more participatory than the Comprehensive Development
Framework (World Bank promoted) whose participation was limited only to
ministries and departments.
IN THE FIRST STAKEHOLDER WORKSHOP
M-PLAZA HOTEL, ACCRA. 18th September
Secretariat Ministry of Finance P. O. Box M. 40 Accra Tel: 661424
Secretariat Ministry of Finance P. O. Box M. 40 Accra Tel: 661424
Marian A. Tackie
m 53 Accra Tel
P. O. Box M. 40
Commodore Benjamin Cole
Flagstaff House Accra Tel:773011
NPRPP. O. Box CT633 Cantoments - Accra Tel: 764907/08 Fax 764906
Flagstaff House P. O. Box CT633 Cantoments-Accra
Flagstaff House P. O. Box CT633 Cantoments-Accra
Flagstaff House P. O. Box CT633 Cantoments-Accra
Knust-Kumasi Tel 051-60406 BIRD@African.on.line.com
of Planning Knust-Kumasi Tel/Fax 051-60324 BIRD@African.on.line.com
K. O. Nsiah
of Parliament Parliament House - Accra Tel 672781 Cell 020-2110041 Fax:
of Finance P. O. Box M. 40 Accra
Institutional Renewal Programme (NIRP) P. O. Box 1618Psc. Building, Accra
Rural Livelihoods Office P. O. Box 296, Accra Helnewedgwood@dfid.rlo.com.gh
of Law, Univ of Ghana Legon Tel: 500304, 027-579274
ENGSLITON ST LONDON WCIH ODD Steve.email@example.com
And D. Tay
Flagstaff House P. O. Box CT633 Cantoments-Accra Tel:773011 Fax:773055
Engsliton St London Wcihodd England UK.Tel +44-207-388-2117Fax:
2826 Email: Barry.firstname.lastname@example.org
Limited P. O. Box CT 1418 Cantoments-Accra Email:email@example.com
O. Box GP 4376, Accra Tel: (233-22) 410032 Fax: (233-22) 410031 Mobile (233-27)
Planning AnalystNational Development Plann. Comm. P. O. Box CT 633 Cantonments-Accra
Tel: 773011 Ext. 103
Planning AnalystNational Development Plann. Comm. P. O. Box CT 633Cantonments-Accra
Tel: 773011 Ext. 103
IN THE SECOND STAKEHOLDER REVIEW SEMINAR
7-Year Development Plan
Name of strategy process: Seven-Year Plan for National Reconstruction
Year initiated: Approved by Parliament on 16 March 1964
Brief description: The Plan was the first integrated and comprehensive
economic plan in Ghanas development administration history. It
was to implement a socialist policy of economic development based on
a programme of work and happiness under which the state, as
the leading sector of the economy, would promote, directly and indirectly,
the creation of full employment and the economic well-being of all Ghanaians.
It contained: (a) a statement of the strategy for Ghanas economic
reconstruction and development, (b) the tasks of the plan, (c) the role
of the non-government sector, (d) sectoral programmes for agriculture,
industry and mining, infrastructure, education, manpower and employment,
health, housing, (e) the Volta River Project, (f) public administration,
(g) foreign trade and payments, (h) financing the plan, and, (i) plan
implementation and management.
Key Objectives: (a) to accelerate economic growth, (b) to start
the socialist transformation of the economy, (c) remove all vestiges of
colonial structure of the economy.
Status of preparation and implementation: Implementation was cut
short by the coup detat in February 1966.
Key stakeholders: The CPP party and government, the state sector
of the economy, cooperatives, civil service, the intelligentsia, private
Main preparation process:
The Conventions Peoples Party (CPP) prepared
a Programme of Work and Happiness in 1961 that provided the overall framework
and principles for the socialist approach to the development of the country.
The Planning Commission was established
in October 1961 to provide a comprehensive development plan, instead of
the public investment programmes that hitherto guided development efforts.
The Programme of Work and Happiness was
adopted at the Congress of the CPP in July 1962
The Planning Commission created various
Committees from its membership, which had representatives of civil service,
academia and business, to develop proposals on themes for the Plan.
The commission collated and integrated
the input from the Committees into a draft Plan.
The Draft Plan was discussed and reviewed
at a conference in April 1963 attended by top development experts from
all over the world, including Albert O. Hirchman, Nicholas Kaldor, Arthur
Lewis, Dudley Seers, K. N. Raj and Walter Birmingham.
The Commission finalized the Plan in the
latter part of 1963.
The Plan was approved by Parliament on
16 March 1964.
Linkages to Ghana-Vision 2020: There are no direct linkages between
the two processes, given the time difference between them. The only indirect
link are that: (a) the 7-Year Plan provided an integrated approach to
planning upon which future planning processes were built; (b) the 7-Year
plan incorporated long-term perspectives for the first time in the planning
culture of Ghana.
Key document: Seven Year Plan for National Reconstruction
and Development Financial Years 1963/62 1969/70. Office of the
Planning Commission, Accra.
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: The Plan continued
and expanded investments initiated under the First Development Plan and
laid the basis for the countrys physical and social infrastructure,
promoted state-owned enterprises in the economic sectors,
Economic Recovery Program
Year initiated: 1983
Brief description: A two-phased
programme involving stabilization and rehabilitation under phase I (1983-1986)
and liberalization and growth under phase II (1987-1989) Major areas
of policy reform covered: pricing, trade and industrial policy, investment,
taxation and subsidy, and, human resource development institutional development.
A Program of Actions to Mitigate the Social Cost of Adjustment (PAMSACD)
was initiated to address poverty issues arising from reform process.
Key Objectives: (a) arrest the decline in production, (b) restore
internal and external macroeconomic balances, (c) rehabilitate productive
and social infrastructure, (d) achieve sustained economic growth, (e)
improve domestic saving and investment, (f) improve the management of
the economy, (g) re-orient the economy towards market determination of
prices, (h) improve the social and overall well being of Ghanaians, particularly
the under-privileged, deprived and vulnerable.
Status of preparation and implementation: Implementation of the
ERP, including programmed structural reforms, has been completed.
Key stakeholders: The programme was prepared solely by government
teams and collaborating officials of the World Bank and the IMF. There
was very little or no involvement of civil society groups in the preparation
of the programme.
Main preparation process: Preparation of the policy framework,
including letter of development policy, by government officials, review
by officials of the donor agencies, negotiations and agreement on terms
and conditionality by government and donor teams.
Linkages to Ghana-Vision 2020: The ERP provided the impetus for
a long-term growth approach to development that laid the basis for the
development of the National Development Planning Framework that was the
pre-cursor to the Ghana Vision 2020.
Republic of Ghana,
Economic Recovery Program 1984-1986, Volume I, Report prepared by
the Government of Ghana for the Meeting of the Consultative Group
for Ghana, Paris November 1983, Government of the Republic of Ghana,
Accra, October 1983.
of Ghana, Economic Recovery Program 1984-1986, Volume II, Report prepared
by the Government of Ghana for the Meeting of the Consultative Group
for Ghana, Paris November 1983, Government of the Republic
of Ghana, Accra, October 1983.
of Ghana, National Programme for Economic Development (Revised), 1st
Republic of Ghana,
Towards a New Dynamism, Report Prepared by the Government of Ghana
for the Fifth Meeting of the Consultative Group for Ghana. Paris,
28 February 1st March 1989.
Republic of Ghana,
Economic Recovery Programme 1984 1986, Review of Progress in
1984 and Goals for 1985, 1986. Report Prepared by the Government
of Ghana for the Second Meeting of the Consultative Group for Ghana,
Paris, December 1984. Government of Ghana, Accra. November 1984.
Republic of Ghana,
A Programme of Structural Adjustment, Report Prepared by the Government
of Ghana for the Fourth Meeting of the Consultative Group for Ghana.
Paris. May 1987.
Republic of Ghana,
Progress of the Economic Recovery Programme 1984-86 and Policy Framework,
1986-88. Report Prepared by 6the Government of Ghana for the Third
Meeting of the Consultative Group for Ghana, Paris, November 1985.
Accra. Ghana, October 1984.
Observations on outcomes and effectiveness: The ERP was largely
effective in restoring macroeconomic balances through 1989-90; but there
were major slippages from 1992. Furthermore, the major structure of the
economy remained unchanged in terms of dependency on a few primary exports,
low technology agriculture, low contribution of industry and high dependency
on aid. Attempts to address social and poverty concerns under PAMSCAD
were limited in scope and impact. The participatory nature of economic
policy formulation was enhanced towards the end of the programme through
increased consultation with the private sector and through the SAPRI that
informed the holding of the National Economic Forum in 1997.
the ERP was not a strategic planning process in the real sense as it was
more of a policy response to solving structural economic problems. It
did not have a long-term development vision towards which the programmatic
actions of macroeconomic stability, sectoral productivity and social development
were geared. Indeed the emphasis was on laying the foundations for long-term
growth, the parameters of which were yet to be articulated.
COORDINATING GROUPS (SCGS) FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
||Lead National Agency
||Ministry of Finance
||World Bank (WB)
TCOP, Nutrition, Street
Children, Poverty Monitoring
the Speaker of Parliament
||Ministry of Health
|| Min. of Road
||Min. of Education
|| Min. of Food
||Min. of Finance
|| Min. of Local
Gov't & Rural Development
||Min. of Mines
& Industrial Development
||PEF/Min. of Trade
||Min. of Local
Gov't & Rural Development
|| Min. of Works
Min. of Lands
& Forestry / Min.
of Envi. Sc. & Tech
||Bank of Ghana/MOF