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Great Expectations? Green Planning in Industrial Countries

B Dalal-Clayton (1996)  Great Expectations? Green Planning in Industrial Countries. Environmental Planning Issues EPI 10. IIED Environmental Planning Group. 33pp.

Over the last few years, many developed countries have attempted national planning exercises which take account of environmental objectives (this has become known as green planning), and have also responded to Agenda 21 by developing their own national sustainable development strategies.

This paper presents an overview of a recent study of 20 green planning initiatives in 12 industrialised countries: Canada, Denmark, France, Latvia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the UK and the USA; and also in the European Union (Dalal-Clayton, 1996, forthcoming).

The majority are government sponsored initiatives, but two were conducted by non-governmental organisations. They include activities which preceded the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) and others which were undertaken in response to UNCED, particularly Agenda 21. The initiatives include a wide range of different approaches (environmental plans, strategies, legislative instruments, reports to parliaments, sustainable development commissions, etc.).

The study considers the origin and scope of green planning, the challenges of sustainable development strategies, key characteristics of green planning approaches, management processes and approaches, participation in green planning, links between green planning and other planning processes and political influences. It also compares green planning and sustainable development strategy processes in developed and developing countries.

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