NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY:
COMMITMENT TO ACTION
of the Mid-Term Review
By: Arthur J. Hanson
, Stephen Bass, Aziz Bouzaher, Ghulam M. Samdani,
with the assistance of Maheen
the full report
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report is the culmination of a one-year effort to undertake a Mid-term
Review (MTR) of the achievements, impacts and prospects of Pakistan’s
National Conservation Strategy (NCS) since the beginning of its implementation
in 1992. The report was prepared by an independent review team, based
on materials and information developed through an intensive consultation
and review process coordinated by the Government of Pakistan. The information
gathered includes studies, various background documentation, plus the
results of consultative meetings held throughout Pakistan and involving
government, civil society, the private sector and international donor
agencies. The key studies are available as separate reports.
of the considerable methodological challenges attending the task of reviewing
the outcomes of such a wide-ranging initiative as the NCS, with its 14
major objectives and some 68 programs, plus related local initiatives
including provincial conservation strategies, the authors are confident
that the overall conclusions and recommendations of this report will provide
a strong basis for achieving enhanced outcomes during the next phase of
the NCS. The review results are directed to each of the major sectors
participating in the implementation of the NCS—federal, provincial and
local governments, civil society organizations including major conservation
bodies such as IUCN-Pakistan, and private sector bodies.
Key Broad Conclusions
main conclusions of the MTR can be summarized as follows:
- Achievements under
the NCS have been primarily awareness raising and institution building
rather than actual improvements in the quality and productivity of environment
and natural resources.
- The NCS was not
designed and is not adequately focused as a national sustainable development
- The NCS process
has strengthened civil society institutions and their influence, and
enhanced the capacity of public institutions.
- NCS implementation
capacity requires much improvement.
- NCS continues to
have a major catalytic role in furthering Pakistan’s sustainable development
agenda. However, it needs refocusing and closer link to achievable development
outcomes; this should constitute the agenda of the next phase of NCS,
here referred to as NCS-2.
NCS was both a process and a product, the product (i.e. the strategy document)
rapidly took precedence over the process (i.e. the multistakeholder participatory
processes, etc.) Over time, the document was less relevant to new opportunities
and constraints, and implementation became constrained by the discontinuation
of many of the useful processes, or by the lack of any effort to get rid
of the factors constraining them—factors which are largely related to
government attitudes and procedures. The on-going crisis of governance
within Pakistan has made it nearly impossible to properly foster the kinds
of government-civil society relations that are needed to implement the
NCS, forming a very basic and powerful underlying implementation constraint.
to highlighting the governance issue, the MTR summarizes the constraints
to NCS implementation as the lack of four fundamental ingredients:
- A clear enough
implementation plan or ‘road map’.
- A monitoring system
geared towards evaluating institutional change and environmental outcomes.
- A system of accountability
for resource use and outcomes.
- A multistakeholder
process for keeping an overview of the NCS, learning and enriching it.
catalytic potential of the NCS continues but needs reinvigorating and
refocusing. In the last ten years, general experience of development in
Pakistan has brought about a greater understanding of the value of the
component processes of the NCS (and provincial/district strategies), especially
by demonstrating where there could be major benefits through more integrated
management approaches and the longer-term consequences of not linking
environment and development. In addition, a start has been made on persuading
decision-makers that implementing sustainable development is an urgent
matter. The problems of environment are affecting the economy, and are
integral to tackling poverty. Many people are now aware of the potential
and the need to act.
the NCS is not currently operating adequately as a national sustainable
development strategy (i.e, going beyond conservation objectives, and focusing
on achieving wider development outcomes), there is potential for NCS-2
to be such. It can do this by building on the above strengths and addressing
the weaknesses, and filling the gaps—where necessary by integrating other
initiatives, or learning from them. Ways to deal with governance constraints—and
ways to improve governance through NCS action where possible—should
conclusions lead to six main recommendations briefly described here and
considered in more detail in Chapter 7 of the report.
the MTR recommended:
each of the six main MTR recommendations, there is a list of 2 to 6 major
actions (see Box). These are addressed principally to government,
but also to NGOs and the private sector, as the NCS can only succeed in
the way that it originated—as a truly multistakeholder initiative. The
focus on government is because government institutional structures and
performance have been the biggest constraint to achieving NCS objectives
to date, and because government is the acknowledged organizer of the NCS.
Finally, there are fourteen pages of suggested tasks either for immediate
attention or for attention within 18 months, about 2 to 10
under each of these major actions.
Chapter 6 of the MTR also offers a further fourteen pages of general
guidelines for the NCS, which have a strong bearing on how the recommendations
should be implemented.
people with time to analyse the MTR’s extensive recommendations have shown
considerable enthusiasm for them, it is apparent that a simpler framework
may help understanding and debate by the many busy people who are concerned
about sustainable development in Pakistan.
section, we therefore present the MTR’s recommendations in a hierarchical
framework that is intended to permit debate, the achievement of consensus,
and give a better picture of the recommended institutional framework for
of the MTR’s recommendations in Chapter 7 tend to be a mix of broad
principles, suggestions on scope of coverage or goals, institutional
roles and mechanisms, and detailed activities. Furthermore, the MTR
makes other more specific but complementary recommendations in almost
every chapter of the report, and presents many guidelines in Chapter
6 which need to be brought together.
intentions – should a strategic approach be continued, with
what scope, and in what form?
principles – what principles should be adopted that have been
shown to work well?
– what component processes and institutional roles are required?
– what options might be considered (whilst avoiding a ‘shopping list’
category is introduced below.
Broad intentions – Should a strategic approach be continued, with what
scope, and in what form?
Should a strategic approach be continued?
FROM THE MTR REPORT
1. Ensure that the NCS is fully owned by government, the key partners
and stakeholders, and by building on the concerns and needs of the people
and recommit to the NCS at the highest levels of the federal government
with a focused, strategic approach that can lead to demonstrable environmental
improvements in the coming year.
that overall planning for devolution and for NCS district-level initiatives
proceed together, with recognition of the need to incorporate a sustainable
development approach within local level governance. NCS should be the
instrument of choice for mainstreaming the environment into local development
NCS stakeholders should take stock of what they have individually and
collectively accomplished under NCS and engage in a joint process to redefine
and strengthen strategies that work.
and expand strategies for individual and community-level awareness-building
about NCS objectives.
much greater attention on incorporating the views and needs of poor people
and communities, and on their direct participation in sustainable development
goal setting and implementation.
a multi-stakeholder forum and strengthen partnerships among government,
civil society, and the private sector.
2. Switch the NCS from top-down and supply-driven to a bottom-up demand-driven
upon the existing NCS and provincial experience with local level planning
and projects for application to the government’s devolution plans, and
for application in future activities under the NCS and provincial conservation
strategies. This bottom-up approach needs to be complemented by stronger
abilities to deal with truly national and international issues. The NCS
can help by fostering the development and strengthening of local institutions
and the empowerment of user groups in ways that can help to build sustainability.
NCS processes towards a demand-driven approach, with appropriate changes
in priorities and how they are set, and with acceptance of adaptive management.
3. Prepare NCS-2 to serve as Pakistan’s sustainable development strategy
for 2002-2012, with a greater emphasis on poverty reduction and economic
development in addition to environmental sustainability.
a transition team to design a revised National Conservation Strategy for
sustainable development, reporting to the Chief Executive and Cabinet
no more than 10 to 12 months after its establishment. The NCS should become
one of the main instruments of development planning.
integration should be given a much more prominent role within all NCS
activities, with achievable objectives that can be monitored and reported
on. While this is a matter that should be acted upon within activities
already underway or planned under the NCS and other strategies, it is
vitally important that gender integration be featured within NCS-2.
4. Make government institutions work towards an enabling framework
for sustainable development.
the macrostructure for NCS administration and management to
improve policy, planning and implementation capacity, to increase effectiveness
in working with the provinces and special areas, and to facilitate activities
not directly under the control of government.
that reforms planned for the civil service are well-instituted within
the NCS management system, with particular attention to capacity development.
framework for monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) of the NCS should
be put in place using the results of the MTR as a starting point. It should
report to a Cabinet Committee, and be supported by a NCS steering committee
in the MELGRD, comprising key stakeholders, with PEPA acting as its Secretariat
since the NCS Unit has failed to perform this function. An adaptive MRE
approach can start small and build credibility over time. In the early
stages considerable effort should be devoted to establishing a baseline.
rights, responsibilities, relationships and accountability for results
on the part of each agency charged with implementing components of the
5. Expand the range and scale of financial mechanisms for meeting NCS
internal resource mobilization in support of the NCS and provincial conservation
innovative sources for funding and investment in environment and sustainable
development. These would have the added benefit of acting as economic
incentives for sustainable development by all businesses’ and by NGO and
community organizations. A good start will be by removing environmentally
perverse subsidies and by pricing environmental resources according to
their scarcity value; promote strong linkages between user charges, cost
recovery, and quality of service delivery.
6. For donors, demonstrate commitment to a renewed NCS through consistent
and coordinated support.
Government of Pakistan should take the lead in establishing a donor coordination
forum for the NCS, covering the existing and proposed range of initiatives
in environment, natural resource management, and sustainable development,
and, as appropriate, linkages of these areas to other key donor themes,
especially those for health and social action.
should seek ways of assisting both government and non-government implementers
of the NCS as they develop a demand-driven approach for NCS-2.
MTR findings point towards the twin need for:
‘umbrella’ national sustainable development strategy, to set a
framework for, and keep an overview of policy and institutional development
and programs aimed at fostering and contributing to sustainable development.
continued, focused environment strategy, to complement poverty
and economic growth strategies (and sector strategies), all operating
within the context of an umbrella sustainable development strategy
NCS provides lessons and precedents for both of the above. But
the MTR chose to focus its recommendations on the first, more ambitious
option; the one that is so far missing, namely a national sustainable
development strategy. The MTR promotes the idea of ‘NCS-2’ as a national
sustainable development strategy.
need for a workable sustainable development strategy in Pakistan is stronger
than ever. There is a continuing decline in human and ecological conditions,
and an increase in poverty and the indebtedness of the country. . Furthermore,
new issues have emerged, for example climate change, environment and security,
and trade and sustainable development. And there is greater awareness
of the need to handle important crosscutting issues that were not fully
anticipated by the NCS, notably globalisation and gender concerns.
of governance, the economy and social development have shifted. A strategic,
learning approach is needed to gradually improve governance and multistakeholder
relations. And many strategic initiatives with implications for policy
and governance are emerging which require an overarching framework and
2 (above) listed enough strengths to indicate that the NCS has the potential
to be revised and revived to become Pakistan’s national strategy for sustainable
development. It would have to operate synergistically with other initiatives
such as the SAP, PRSP, structural adjustment loans, Biodiversity Action
Plan and future environmental action plans, providing umbrella principles
and institutional mechanisms to integrate these.
rest of this Summary is a prospectus carries on the theme of what a national
sustainable development strategy might look like. It also uses the convenient
term NCS-2 as a shorthand for it. This does not obviate the need for a
focused environment strategy. Indeed, many of the suggested principles
and institutional arrangements explained below also apply to it.
Scope of NCS-2 as a national sustainable development strategy
of coverage: A successful sustainable development strategy must cover
the essential environmental and natural resource conservation needs of
Pakistan, just as the NCS has done. But much more attention needs to be
given to sustainability in economic and social systems too, and their
links to environmental sustainability. The NCS-2 will therefore have to
focus on three key goals. It will have to mainstream the environment
in a way that achieves widespread acceptance and brings conservation into
traditional policy making areas:
economic growth, based particularly on industrial and agricultural
- Quality of life
and human development, especially through environmental health and
- Poverty reduction,
notably by providing and safeguarding livelihood opportunities, especially
for poor people, who are the most affected by lack of access to critical
resources, poor environmental conditions and natural disasters
- Depth’ of coverage:
The NCS-2 should focus on national-level concerns, and national
institutional roles, rather than covering everything right down
to what should happen at the village level. But it will recognize, encourage
and support provincial, district and other strategic approaches consonant
with the devolution plan. Thus the scope includes:
- Pakistan’s position
in relation to global environmental issues e.g. climate change and biodiversity
conservation, and Pakistan’s contribution to global environmental conventions.
- Sustainable development
aspects of globalisation, to both protect vulnerable groups in Pakistan
and realize opportunities.
- Regional issues
such as river basins, shared protected areas, transboundary pollution,
and marine pollution.
- Expanding opportunities
for a continuous improvement approach to sustainable development, especially
through institutional strengthening.
- Continued guidelines
for provincial and sectoral policies for "mainstreaming"
sustainable development through policies, principles and criteria, standards,
indicators and monitoring.
- Coordinating major
national programs aimed at sustainable development.
- Promoting SD within
macro-policy concerns, notably structural adjustment loans, poverty
reduction, national environment and security issues.
- Assessing and monitoring
sustainable development and environmental standards.
- Overall, addressing
sustainable development in the context of improved governance.
Urban and District Issues
- Supporting provincial
sustainable development strategies and initiatives—especially so that
local (urban, district and lower) institutions are able to ‘drive’ the
whole strategy ‘system’ from the bottom up.
- Controls and incentives
for increased private sector investment in sustainable development,
and for responsible practice.
- Support for community
driven development and empowerment of local institutions.
What form should NCS-2 take?
cannot take the form of a document with an implementation ‘master plan’—the
case in the previous phase. Year by year, the document and plans became
increasingly out of date, as there were no communication and decision-making
systems to keep it alive to changing conditions, learning and needs. Indeed,
even what was being achieved often went unnoticed due to the lack of a
system of oversight.
NCS-2 should be an integrated system of strategic functions for sustainable
development governance. This system should foster an adaptive approach,
incorporating functions that have been limited so far: analysis, planning,
experiment, coordination, communication, mainstream activities, monitoring,
learning and review. These functions need not be strictly sequential,
beginning with a ‘planning phase’ and proceeding to an ‘implementation
phase’, as with the NCS. Nor should they be entirely ‘top-down’, starting
in the national capitol and gradually moving into the provinces. Instead,
many of the functions will be continuous, or happen regularly, e.g. yearly
debate and monitoring. They will provide better communication between
federal and provincial bodies, and between sectors and initiatives. As
such, NCS-2 would not ‘plan’ everything, but would largely be a system
to guide change—identifying, bringing together, and supporting
the most promising ways forward.
NCS-2 institutional ‘system’ should be developed and approved in 2001,
to begin operation in 2002. The transition to NCS-2 presents an excellent
opportunity for the switch to a demand-driven approach, linked to the
national focus on devolution.
Strategic principles – What principles should be adopted that have been
shown to work well?
is a feeling that redefining the NCS in terms of policy, principles,
standards, and performance—then developing a system of participation
that invites and requires institutions and departments to develop their
own responses, might be more effective than a centralized approach that
is very difficult to coordinate.
operating principles were originally established by the NCS: achieving
greater public partnership in development and management; merging environment
and economics in decision making; and focusing on durable improvements
in the quality of life of the Pakistani people. Further to these, the
MTR identified strong attributes of the NCS, which can explain its successful
impacts over the past decade, and also certain weak attributes, which
have constrained success (summarized in Section 2 above). This learning
can be put together in the form of a draft set of sixteen guiding concepts
The MTR recommended
that the NCS-2 should provide a ‘clear policy and basic principles’,
but did not present principles in this form. However, the MTR discussed
various attributes that could be presented as principles, and offered
recommendations for improvement, in many chapters. Here we use the
word ‘concept’ rather than principles, since they would need to be
further condensed into a manageable number of principles that could
be readily grasped and remembered by those exposed to NCS-2.
Extensive participation of stakeholders should drive all the strategy
processes, requiring objective stakeholder identification, awareness-building
and information exchange amongst stakeholders, adequate rights and resources
to participate, and a clear understanding of benefits accruing to participants.
Transparency and active communications form the ‘life-blood’
of any strategic transition to sustainable development, and information
should be accessible by all stakeholders, using languages and media that
enable ‘bottom-up’ understanding and challenges.
Regular and objective research, policy analysis and monitoring which focuses
on sustainability should be central to strategy processes, so that
stakeholders understand changing contexts, future prospects, needs and
responses, and develop a ‘learning’ approach.
A shared vision of sustainable development is essential for maintaining
the concerted effort and commitment of individuals, civil society, government,
and the development community, and strategy processes should aim to achieve
this and keep it under frequent review.
Innovation and experiment should be encouraged for identifying and
testing solutions that make sense in local or sectoral contexts, especially
by creating enabling conditions for the private sector and amongst communities.
Timeliness and demonstration activities, that take account of political
dynamics and stakeholder demands, are important strategy tactics, as they
can produce highly tangible results over short periods, maintaining relevance
and improving stakeholder understanding and interest.
and leadership: NCS-2 must be driven and ‘owned’ by many people at
all levels in Pakistan, and must actively seek out and support leadership
for sustainable development at many levels; but is especially dependent
on strengthening senior-level government ownership.
Decentralization and empowerment processes are central to sustainable
development; the strategy needs to be consistent with, and support, the
devolution of power for the genuine empowerment of citizens; the decentralization
of administrative authority; the deconcentration of professional functions;
the diffusion of power for checks and balances to preclude autocracy;
and the distribution of resources to the provincial and local level.
Coordination, facilitation and partnerships are critical for managing
the broad scope of sustainable development, and the many stakeholders,
especially at the government level; there is a need for developing partnerships
between federal and provincial governments, NGOs and the private sector;
utilizing independent groups such as IUCN as facilitators where necessary;
special care in coordinating all major strategies and programs that aim
to improve the policy and institutional conditions for sustainable development
e.g. FSMP, BAP, PRSP.
Stakeholder-driven priority-setting mechanisms are essential for managing
the broad scope; this also requires attention to only a few program areas
at any one time, with an emphasis on crosscutting goals to assist many
Gender integration should receive special priority at two levels:
the procedures and staffing of sustainable development institutions, and
programmatic work, which should include both focused and integrated gender
Mainstreaming of environmental and social concerns into development initiatives
and government procedures is essential for improving the sustainability
of ongoing investment, production and consumption patterns; and "projectisation"
of NCS-2 activities additional to mainstream activities should
be a lower priority.
Financial flows are central to the sustainability of development,
and the NCS-2 needs both to influence mainstream mechanisms and to increase
the number of special mechanisms available to invest in environmental
and social priorities.
Capacity strengthening is central to a sustainable development strategy,
especially in government management and monitoring, and should be developed
through stakeholder involvement in strategy activities.
The many principles for sustainable development that have become established
in international law and, increasingly, in Pakistan law or practice,
should be employed, notably cost recovery and the polluter
A continuous improvement approach can be achieved through adherence
to the above principles, but is a useful principle in its own right –
building on what has worked (notably NCS successes), tackling a few priority
targets which people care most about, learning step-by-step, and gradually
addressing ever-more ambitious goals; it implies that monitoring should
always show some progress, even though the base may be low. A fixed ‘ten-year
agenda’ should be avoided.
set of concepts is only a suggestion, it should be reviewed and refined.
Indeed, early discussion of it could be the most useful first tactic to
help to confirm the purpose and approach of NCS-2 amongst stakeholders.
interesting to note that these concepts can apply both to an umbrella
national strategy for sustainable development (the recommendation for
NCS-2) and to all of the strategic initiatives that should relate to it
– environment, poverty reduction and sectoral strategies.
Mechanisms – What component processes and institutional roles are required?
The basic policy and institutional framework:
lack of a national sustainable development (SD) policy and institutional
framework has hindered progress in implementing the NCS. A central recommendation
is to develop and implement:
- A strong federal
policy for SD, focused on the three key development aims, economic
growth, quality of life, and poverty reduction, but not forgetting the
non-anthropocentric purposes of nature conservation.
- Policy guidelines
for the provinces consistent with the above.
for implementing the policy—with a focus on enabling legislation,
market-based instruments and incentives.
- A system of
networked institutions and component mechanisms which enable
a continuous-improvement approach to developing and implementing sustainable
development policy, with clear responsibilities.
last point is the critical one, as it is central to developing and implementing
the first three.
The national body – a commission for sustainable development, with linked
thematic and provincial round tables
national body could be a commission or steering group for sustainable
development. It would oversee the strategy processes, maintaining oversight
of progress in integrating environment and development involving key stakeholder
groups. It would include thematic round tables that allow the various
sectoral and cross-sectoral policy communities to come together—bringing
together ‘champions of change’ and especially attracting private sector
actors who will be creating environmental investments. It would be strongly
linked to the provinces, through provincial SD round tables, and encourage
the growth of strong local institutions, while (to a well-judged extent)
working with international stakeholders. It would centre on a strengthened
PEPC, involving the four PEP partners and better representation of mainstream
ministries such as finance, trade and foreign affairs, the private sector
and provincial partners. It would plan, review, learn and adapt,
and must be constructed to encourage a demand-driven approach. A secretariat
would be needed.
Engagement and participation mechanisms
NCS-2 will have to be engaged with, and influence, the powerful actors
and their networks that are driving the key agendas crucial for sustainable
development of the country:
- Economic and trade
liberalization networks, consisting almost exclusively of economists
and business interests promoting market solutions.
- The poverty eradication
network, which is united around community empowerment, development and
- The agriculture
network of agronomists united by the green revolution's promise of dramatic
- The energy network,
united for a long time around the unrealised potential of hydropower.
- The urban agenda
network, united almost exclusively by the vision of real estate development.
- The international
NGOs and donor networks which combine a multitude of often competing
visions, ranging from pure conservation, social transformation, development
effectiveness, and opening up markets and business opportunities.
approach would focus far more than in the past on identifying and incorporating
the views and needs of poor people and communities, and on their
direct participation in sustainable development goal setting and implementation.
It would also place much greater emphasis on the involvement of the private
sector, including small and medium-size firms, insurance and banks,
and other organizations not yet influenced by the NCS—creating the conditions
for responsible business to thrive and ‘closing doors’ to bad environmental/social
practice. For all, participation would be structured to identify practicable
priorities—that people really want and are prepared to pay for if necessary—and
to avoid inflated, over-comprehensive agendas.
the approach, it would be worth supporting information sharing on, and
improvements to, the already promising participatory and analytical elements
of district conservation strategies and community programs.
need is for a feedback mechanism between district, provincial, and national
strategies. Initially this should communicate the results and concerns
of recent consultations and round tables. Thereafter a more structured
set of communications among the different ‘tiers’ of participation would
be helpful, so that the NCS builds from the bottom up, as well as in response
to national and international affairs relevant to the NCS.
mechanisms could include:
- Round Tables and
focus groups, as used in the provincial strategies.
- Legally mandated
activities such as EIA.
- Mechanisms used
by the rural and urban support programs to emphasize the needs of local
people, communities and businesses.
- A cross-sector,
mixed government/civil society/private sector NCS consultative forum
that might meet about twice a year to review issues and progress and
thus inform the national SD body/commission.
- Use of electronic
communications, perhaps via SDNP.
- Other proven, robust,
transparent information gathering and dissemination mechanisms.
The communication, information and research system
communication and advocacy strategy would need to be designed to muster
support from the key policy networks and communities, as well as from
other stakeholders. It should commit to environment and sustainable development
education on a much greater scale than in the past, drawing upon the pilot
experience at both national and provincial/special areas levels, and accessing
both the public and private school system. All of this should be linked
to a network of research institutions.
communications/information/research system could include:
- A communications/information
round table comprising stakeholders from the government, NGOs, and civil
society should be formed to review and revise the existing awareness
raising and advocacy strategies.
- A network of research
institutions which, together, provide the multiple disciplines and information
for identifying options, paths and progress towards sustainable development—centred
- A regularly issued
state of environment report coupled with a national conference.
- An independent
‘watchdog’ (or report), perhaps built on the existing efforts of SDPI.
- Resource accounting:
a ‘balance sheet’ of environmental assets, relating this to the costs
- Regular ‘state
of environmental stakeholders’ surveys of awareness, commitment and
judgments of priority environmental issues.
- Macroeconomic scrutiny:
assessing economic policy for its likely impacts on environmental assets
(strategic environmental assessment).
NCS-2 should be an on-going, dynamic process that continuously engages
the people and institutions of Pakistan, some sort of short document is
obviously required. And a website should be regularly updated to provide
information on the process of development, and, later, on implementation.
Financial and investment mechanisms
should not become an investment strategy, to avoid it becoming relegated
to its old role of a convenient aggregation of projects designed to attract
the attention of donors in particular. Rather, it should establish the
types of investment that are promising and help to construct a broader
range of approaches – especially to channel private sector investment
positively towards sustainability and away from damaging practices. These
approaches could include:
(1) review of
subsidies; (2) removal of trade barriers for the import of clean technologies,
fuels, and pollution control equipment; (3)review pricing policy (energy,
water), (4) review the process of importing pollution control equipment,
(5) aim for efficiency gains (water use, privatising some municipal
services, eco-efficiency in industry, switch to natural gas) (6) credit
access and self-financing.
- Developing innovative
and toxic pollution charges; (2) input taxes on agro-chemicals; (3)
user charges for environmental amenities and assessment services such
as those related to trophy hunting and waste disposal; (4) cost recovery
for service provision where there is willingness to pay (water, sanitation,
solid waste management); (5) a variety of green payment schemes; (6)
ways for communities to build financial capital to permit borrowing
for environmental improvements (through micro-credit schemes, for
which there are a number of well-established models); and (7) exploring
‘green business’ opportunities such as environmental control engineering
manufacturing and installations, environmentally-certified products
and businesses, energy conservation companies, and ecotourism.)
- Fully capturing
the economic values of global environmental benefits provided by Pakistan
to the international community
of instruments like GEF, Montreal Protocol, Prototype Carbon Fund,
in a way, which is compatible with sustainable development in broader
respects—single-purpose global concerns could otherwise easily squeeze
out local requirements.
- Ensuring appropriate
donor support, addressing equity issues and linked to innovation for
will mean the NCS-2 system itself running a scheme, e.g. a sustainable
development fund to provide start-up support to promising initiatives
with expected high public environmental and social benefits.
Monitoring and accountability mechanisms
what is going well, or badly, for sustainable development, monitoring
can bring together many of the individual elements and strategies important
for sustainable development. Thus it is important to develop an effective
framework for monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) of the NCS. This
should cover both performance evaluation and advice, and early warning
results of the MTR can be used as a starting point. The MTR offers both
a baseline (the facts and opinions collected in the ten volumes) and some
insights on process. Clearly, it should not take eight years again before
the NCS is reviewed. The national body/commission on sustainable development
would commission and receive MRE work, and develop revisions to NCS-2
will need to be dedicated monitoring staff (e.g. a Policy, Planning and
Evaluation Unit in MELGRD and/or in the Environment Sections on P&D
Divisions). But monitoring is not entirely an external affair. Rather
it should focus around the internal procedures of all institutions involved
in NCS-2 – helping self-learning and a continuous improvement approach.
framework should relate directly to a clear framework for accountability.
In part this means clarifying the rights, responsibilities, relationships
and accountability for results on the part of each agency charged with
NCS-2 functions and targets. It also entails a major investment in procedures
for accountability, involving the judiciary, NGOs, the media, and open-access
information systems. This will take some time.
Development assistance roles
should demonstrate commitment to an NCS-2, as a national strategy for
sustainable development, through consistent and coordinated support. Support
for individual thematic or sectoral strategies (PRSP, biodiversity action
plan, national desertification action plan, etc.) should be consistent
with an overall SD strategy, and be based on principles/guiding concepts
such as those suggested at 3.2 above. This would help to avoid overlap,
and undue ‘competition’ and gaps. Without such support, problems are likely
to become worse within Pakistan, with longer-term repercussions not only
for the country but also further afield.
The Government of
Pakistan should take the lead in establishing a donor coordination forum
for the NCS, covering the existing and proposed range of initiatives in
environment, natural resource management, and sustainable development,
and, as appropriate, linkages of these areas to other key donor themes,
especially those for health and social action, economic growth and poverty
reduction. The forum would relate strongly to the proposed national body/commission
for sustainable development. It should promote the pursuit of principles
(based on suggestions at 4.2) in all these initiatives
donors should recognize the special role that civil society organizations
and hybrid organizations such as IUCN-Pakistan (which includes both
governmental and non-governmental bodies as members) have in management
and capacity building for sustainable development. They require continuity
in funding if they are going to be strong partners, no matter how
difficult donor relationships with government may be at times.
Conclusion — Benefits of a Strategy for Sustainable Development (NCS-2)
on the findings of NCS MTR it is suggested that a sustainable development
shared vision, but avoid over-complexity.
sharing of information, ideas and learning among various stakeholders.
establishment of mechanisms and institutions to deal with change and risk
in a holistic manner in circumstances of limited resources.
transitions from sectoral to integrated planning.
active communication/education to ‘drive’ it all.
determine how costs and benefits should be shared between stakeholders’
groups and levels (district to national), in order to set priorities.
to identify a road map towards sustainable economic growth and social
8. Clarify the major
responsibilities and partnerships for implementation.
9. Provide signals
to all those involved on how they will be held accountable.
10. Improve international
relationships (in trade, obligations under multilateral environmental
agreements, and access to international financial mechanisms paying for
global environmental services.)
11. Increase the capacity
to continually improve and practice effective strategic approaches.
The challenge of addressing
the triple bottom line issues of sustainability is a major
one for Pakistan, and for all other nations. The NCS laid the groundwork
that permits us to view the challenge clearly and comprehensively. Now
is the time for action to produce direct benefits for the people and communities
report was prepared by the External Review Team (ERT) and is based on
findings of the Team, including other results from the Pakistan National
Conservation Strategy Mid-term Review (MTR). The main period of work took
place during 1999-2000. Comments were received between July-November 2000.
This final version was completed in November 2000.